oSpearmans g factor (g is for general)oKids doing well in school usually do so in many subjectsoSimilarly, people who do well on Stanford binet test tended to do well on different types of itemsVocabulary, puzzles, arithmetic…May not be perfect correlations (see factor analysis example) but 0.3 is still statistically significantoSuggested that intellect is partly based on a “general intelligence” fact (g) that influences all tasksVerbal and quantitative abilities are clearly distinct…BUT g cuts across all tasks – it’s the core of intelligence Essentially, intelligence is one scoreoIs “g” real?Predicts success in high school, university, year of education, later earnings, predicts who gets hired, predicts on-the-job success better thanmeasures of specific abilities tailored to individual jobs, predicts likelihood of divorce (within 5 years), predicts likelihood of incarcerationHierarchal models of intelligenceoCombine aspects of the 2 previous approaches by “nesting” specific abilities under goBy far the most common approach, currentlyCrystallized vs Fluid intelligenceocattall-Horn modeldivides “g” into 2 sub-types:
ocrystallized intelligence (gc)applying previous knowledge – including facts, or problem-solving schemasso, this is the major basis of Expertise…cultural influence (in problem solving schemas)mostly LTMofluid intelligence(gf)ability to deal with novel situation (i.e. you have no previous experience with it)inductive reasoning, creative problem solving..depends on efficient CNS, not knowledge bankmostly WMonote: fluid intelligence may become crystallizedoactivate different brain areas suggests actual differenceoover lifetime, move from using Gf to Gcgain experience with more problem types more knowledge, schemas (crystallized intelligence) wisdomGc improves into adulthood, remain strong; Gf declines in late adulthoodCombining ALL the models…oCarrol’s three Stratum Theory:oCombines all the previous ideas into oneoG underlies 8 “intellectual factors”Intellectual factors are different than Thurstone’s original “primary mentalabilities”E.g. Fluid & crystallized intelligence are I.F.’soThe 8 “intellectual factors” underlie ~70 specific cognitive abilitiesThe more a factor is influenced by g, the farther to the left it is in the model (i.e. nearer to g)
*fluid and crystallized are 2 of the factors and are in fact the most related to general intelligence. Gardner’s model: gardner’s multiple intelligences:o“current definitions of intelligence are too limited”owhat about a musical genius?oOr someone with amazing hockey sense?