The_Arthashastra__selected_passages_

Thus with his organs of sense under his control he

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Thus with his organs of sense under his control, he shall keep away from hurting the women and property of others; avoid not only lustfulness, even in dream, but also
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falsehood, haughtiness, and evil proclivities; and keep away from unrighteous and uneconomical transactions. Not violating righteousness and economy, he shall enjoy his desires. He shall never be devoid of happiness. He may enjoy in an equal degree the three pursuits of life, charity, wealth, and desire, which are inter-dependent upon each other. Any one of these three, when enjoyed to an excess, hurts not only the other two, but also itself. Kautilya holds that wealth and wealth alone is important, inasmuch as charity and desire depend upon wealth for their realisation. Those teachers and ministers who keep him from falling a prey to dangers, and who, by striking the hours of the day as determined by measuring shadows ( chháyánálikápratodena ) warn him of his careless proceedings even in secret shall invariably be respected. Sovereignty ( rájatva ) is possible only with assistance. A single wheel can never move. Hence he shall employ ministers and hear their opinion. CHAPTER X. Ascertaining by temptations purity or impurity in the character of ministers. Assisted by his prime minister ( mantri ) and his high priest, the king shall, by offering temptations, examine the character of ministers ( amátya ) appointed in government departments of ordinary nature. The king shall dismiss a priest who, when ordered, refuses to teach the Vedás to an outcaste person or to officiate in a sacrificial performance (apparently) undertaken by an outcaste person ( ayájya ). Then the dismissed priest shall, through the medium of spies under the guise of class- mates ( satri ), instigate each minister one after another, saying on oath "this king is unrighteous; well let us set up in his place another king who is righteous, or who is born of the same family as of this king, or who is kept imprisoned, or a neighbouring king of his family and of self-sufficiency ( ekapragraha ), or a wild chief ( atavika ), or an upstart ( aupapádika ); this attempt is to the liking of all of us; what dost thou think ?" If any one or all of the ministers refuse to acquiesce in such a measure, he or they shall be considered pure. This is what is called religious allurement. A commander of the army, dismissed from service for receiving condemnable things ( asatpragraha ) may, through the agency of spies under the guise of class-mates ( satri ), incite each minister to murder the king in view of acquiring immense wealth, each minister being asked "this attempt is to the liking of all of us; what dost thou think?" If they refuse to agree, they are to be considered pure. This is what is termed monetary allurement.
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  • Fall '10
  • Sekhar
  • ministers, Kautilya, varta

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