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tives in the scheduled time, and it is often difficult to engage criticalStakeholders quickly to address every Change Request that is submitted. Atool that I have used successfully to address this issue is to use a ChangeControl Variance to manage scope.A Change Control Variance is a set of measurements applied to ProjectCost, Schedule, Scope, and Quality. These measurements can be used todefine a ‘two-tier’ process to approve Change Requests. For any ChangeRequest that does not exceed the variance criteria, the Project Core Team isempowered to make the approve/deny decision. Anything that exceeds thevariance criteria requires Management to approve/deny the request. Anexample of a Project Cost Variance would be, ‘if the Change Requestrequires additional staff exceeding one-half staff month ($7,000) in orderto meet the implementation date’. An example of a Project Scope Variancewouldbe,‘anyChangeRequestreducesthescopeoftheprojector eliminates tasks’. Defining this two-tier process proved to be anotherProjectSponsorSteeringCommitteeProjectManagerAuditComplianceTreasuryManagementInternationalClearingTechnologyDevelopmentInfrastructureDatabaseBalance reportsLockboxTrade financialsFXLendingGlobalDomestic7-2Project Organization Chart—External View108EXPLORING THEPMBOKÒGUIDE
beneficial planning task that brought the Core Team together and engagedManagement’s support by letting them finalize the variance criteria.QUALITY PLANThere has been much focus on project quality lately. Sometimes in atechnology project, the definition of quality can be elusive; however, qual-ity can be found and defined. During the Stakeholder Analysis you receivedfeedback from Stakeholders regarding project quality. The Core Teamshould be able to come up with other ideas. Generally, quality can bedefined for an end deliverable, such as the software product, or it can beapplied to a process. From a product perspective, quality can be measuredin several ways. It can be developing reusable code, defining throughputperformance, or integrating the software with organizational infrastructurestandards. As for process quality, it can be defined as how the project willconduct a given process so as to produce quality project results. For exam-ple, in a Y2K testing project, one financial institution defined quality ashaving the end users participate in the test planning effort and conduct theactual testing since they knew the system and how they used it best.The Quality Plan is where your project defines its quality objectives, andits plan for achieving them. These objectives can be defined in QualityCategories. For example, individual deliverables may have their own Qual-ity definitions. In the example above, one could define a category for ‘Con-ducting a quality test of the final software product’. Within this category, itis essential to define how the project will measure testing quality. Thesemeasurements can be objective or subjective, which should be noted. In