138 however this implies that womens role as

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138 However, this implies that women’s role as peacemakers is ambiguous to say the least. At the same time, the study does provide evidence that men are also socialised to prevent conflict. “ The best bed a man can have is peace ” as a Somali proverb says, meaning that for a man to be able to fulfil his responsibilities there needs to be peace. Findings reveal a social and governance system constructed around the potential for conflict (over natural re- sources and livestock) but in which the overriding need is for peace. The generational hierarchy of the clan system could be described as providing man- power for both scenarios, separating men into youth and adults, warriors and elders - the one allocated the task of defending the group’s identity, and the 137 See section 2.4 above. 138 See for example, Habiba Osman testimony. In Gardner, J. & El Bushra, J. (eds) 2004. The present study found little evidence of this, however. other to promote reconciliation. 139 Findings emphasise the requirement for men to be responsible at many levels, and this includes devel- oping skills of conflict mediation as well as directly seeking to prevent conflict. Men are expected to sac- rifice their individual interests to those of the clan. Men are enjoined to avoid violence in the home and outside it, and to avoid bringing their clan into disrepute through violence; clans bear the financial cost of interpersonal violence through the system of diya payments, and this functions as a disincen- tive at both the individual and the institutional level. Although some forms of violence are permitted, or even expected in circumstances where the sur- vival of family and clan require it, other forms are proscribed, 140 suggesting that conflict management and the containment of violence is a function of the clan. Whatever the influence of the cultural context, it is clear that many men resist violence in various ways or are indeed victims of violence from other men. Testimonies describe incidents where men sought to disarm other men and promoted an end to vio- lence. In the absence of an effective judicial system, some elders have taken it on themselves to contain (incarcerate) other men when they are recognised to be a threat to the community due to their violence. In some places (including Las Canood, Boroma, Dadaab and Mogadishu) a number of testimonies revealed men living in fear of violence from other men, and experiencing extremes of personal inse- curity, particularly arising from the threat of anno (feud) assassination or from armed groups such as Al-Shabaab. Both younger and older men described how they seek a variety of means to avoid violence: physically moving away (moving to town, moving to another town, undertaking tahriib or otherwise seeking life in another country, physically escaping those trying to coerce them into violent activities such as piracy 139 See I.M. Lewis, study of northern Somali pastoral society, ‘A Pas- toral Democracy’,(1961) on the division of men into warriors (waran- leh) and men of religion ( wadaad ).

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