14 for ex slaves sharecropping was preferable to

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14.For ex-slaves, sharecropping was preferable to laboring for their former owners, but it was devastating to southern agriculture; it committed the South inflexibly to cotton because it was a cash crop and limited southern incentives for agricultural improvements. A rural economy emerged that was mired in widespread poverty and an uneasy compromise between landowners and laborers.B.Republican Governments in the South1.Between 1868 and 1871, all the southern states met the congressional stipulations and rejoined the Union.2.Republicans in the South needed the African American vote and helped to organize organizations like the Union League, a biracial secret fraternal order thatfunctioned as a powerful political club to uphold justice to freedmen.3.The Freedmen’s Bureau also helped freedmen on economic matters and established schools for African Americans, including black colleges such as Fisk and Hampton Institute. By 1869, there were over 3,000 teachers, over half of whom were black, instructing freedmen in the South.4.Southern white Republicans were called scalawagsby Democratic ex-Confederates; white northerners who moved to the South were called carpetbaggers. Both groups wanted to bring northern capital into the South for economic development and personal gain.5.Although never proportionate to their size in population, black officeholders were prominent throughout the South.6.Republicans modernized state constitutions, eliminated property qualifications forvoting, got rid of the Black Codes, and expanded the rights of married women.7.Reconstruction social programs called for hospitals, more humane penitentiaries, and asylums; Reconstruction governments built roads and revived the railroad network.8.Most impressive of Republican Reconstruction government achievements was in the field of education. By 1875, over half of black children were attending school
in several deep southern states. White children also benefited from higher graduation rates during this progressive period in southern public education.C.Building Black Communities1.After emancipation, Southern blacks could engage in open community-building. Indoing so, they cooperated with northern missionaries and teachers.2.Independent churches quickly became central institutions of black life. Black churches served as schools, social centers, and meeting halls. Black ministers were community leaders and often political spokesmen.3.Teachers and charity leaders embarked on a project of “racial uplift” while black entrepreneurs built businesses that catered largely to a black clientele.4.Some black leaders promoted integration of public facilities, but most stayed away from the thorny issue, while many black parents preferred all-black schooling to protect their children from hostile whites.

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