Whereas the other received only a posttest measure o

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Statistics for Business & Economics
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Chapter 3 / Exercise 62
Statistics for Business & Economics
Anderson
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), whereas the other received only a posttest measure (O 3 ). Both groups were exposed to the same treatment (X 1 ) and the treatment and posttest measures occurred at the same time for both groups. Field experiments experiments that are carried out in a natural setting with a minimum of artificial elements in the experiment. Laboratory experiments experiments conducted under artificial conditions, such as testing television ads in a movie theater rather than in buyers’ homes.
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Statistics for Business & Economics
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Chapter 3 / Exercise 62
Statistics for Business & Economics
Anderson
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88 Part 2 Secondary Data and Research Designs Ethics and Experimentation Over the past few years, there has been increasing concern for protecting the rights of subjects used in research projects. This is a potential problem in all studies involving human subjects. The researcher should give careful consideration to the potential neg- ative effects on those participating in an experiment to avoid violating the subjects’ rights and deflect potential lawsuits. Luckily, most business research experiments are not likely to involve negative effects, but the possibility of such effects should be care- fully evaluated. 5 Experimental Research Designs There are many possible experimental designs, and they vary widely in terms of both complexity and effectiveness. The most widely accepted classifications of designs are: (1) pre-experiments, (2) true experiments, and (3) quasi experiments. While complete coverage of experimental designs is beyond the scope of this book, a brief explanation and examples of these follows: Preexperimental Designs Preexperimental designs are designs that are weak in terms of their ability to control the various threats to internal validity. This is especially true with the one-shot case study. One-Shot Case Study. This design may be noted as: X 1 O 1 An example of such a study would be to conduct a sales training program without a measure of the salespeople’s knowledge before participation in the training program. Re- sults would reveal only how much they know after the program but not how effective the program was in increasing knowledge. One-Group Pretest-Posttest. This design can be represented as: O 1 X 1 O 2 It is an improvement on the one-shot case study because of the addition of the pretest measurement, but it is still a weak design in that it fails to control for history, maturation, and other internal validity problems. Static-Group Comparison. This design provides for two study groups, one of which receives the experimental treatment while the other serves as a control. The design is: X 1 O 1 O 2 The addition of a control group makes this design better than the previous two designs. However, there is no way to ensure that the two groups were not different before the in- troduction of the treatment. True Experimental Designs The major deficiency of the previous designs is that they fail to provide groups that are comparable. The way to achieve comparability is through the random assignment of sub- jects to groups and treatments to groups. This deficit is overcome in the following true experimental designs.

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