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Focuses on the ve orgs successes rather than on its

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focuses on the +ve & org’s successes rather than on its problems 4 steps (“4 Ds”) played out in large group over 2, 3 days: Discovery to find out what ppl think are the strengths of the org e.g. ask employees to recount times they felt the org worked best, or when they felt most satisfied w/ their jobs Dreaming use info from Discovery phase to speculate on possible futures for the org e.g. ppl are asked to envision the org in 5 yrs & describe what’s different Design based on dream articulation, participants focus on finding a common vision of how the org will look & agree on its unique qualities Destiny participants discuss how the org is going to fulfill its dream - writing action plans, develop implementation strategies RESISTANCE TO CHANGE - can be +ve b/c it provides degree of stability & predictability to behaviour (source of functional conflict) - can also be –ve (hinders adaptation & progress) - easiest to deal w/ when it’s overt & immediate - difficult to manage when implicit (more subtle, so difficult to recognize) & deferred (cloud the link btwn source of resistance & reaction to it, may stockpile & accumulate to explode some time later) Individual Resistance - perceptions, personalities, needs 5 sources: Habit : tendency in one’s accustomed ways to resist when changing habits Security : change threatens feelings of safety for ppl w/ high need for security Economic factors : (esp. when pay is closely tied to productivity) ppl may be concerned that they won’t be able to perform new tasks/routines to their previous standards Fear of the unknown : ambiguity & uncertainty Selective info processing : ppl hear what they want to hear, ignore info that challenges their world Cynicism About Change Sources: Feeling uninformed about what was happening Lack of comm’n & respect from manager Lack of comm’n & respect from union representative Lack of opportunity for meaningful participation in decision making - -ve personalities → more likely to be cynical about change
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P ART 5: R EORGANIZING THE W ORKPLACE Results: lower commitment, less satisf’n, reduced motivation to work hard Organizational Resistance 6 major sources: Structural inertia org’s have built-in mechanisms (selection processes, regulations) → when confronted w/ change, structural inertia acts as counterbalance to sustain stability Limited focus of change org’s are made up of numerous interdependent subsystems, so one cannot be changed w/o affecting the others → limited changes in subsystems tend to be nullified by larger system Group inertia group norms may act as a constraint even if individuals want to change behaviour Threat to expertise changes in org patterns may threaten expertise of specialized groups Threat to established power relationships any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationships Threat to established resource allocations groups that control sizable resources tend to be content w/ the way things are & see change as
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