they involve learned associationsresponses are under control of stimuli in the environmentresponses will gradually disappear of not periodically renewednew behaviors can build upon previously established onesThe Importance of ContingenciesClassical Conditioning•Contingency between CS and US; CS signals that US is about to happen –CS must come before US–CS must occur in close proximity to USOperant ConditioningEx: there’s total 100 trails. We don’t reward all 100 trails. We reward the first 25 trails. Then 27, 29, 31, 33100 the organism is expecting the rewards. It’s the process of learning. The organism learns that the behavior associated with the rewards. Schedules of Reinforcement: FRFixed Ratio: Correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of correct responses. there’s a specific number. After the number is hit, you get rewards. (depend on #)Variable Ratio: Varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement (ratio)Fixed interval: Correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time has passed. (depends on time)ex: every two week you have to spend time to pick up the check. After 2 weeks, you get paid (reinenforce)Variable Interval: Correct response is reinforced after varying amounts of time.Ex: pop quiz. Cognitive LearningEx: People go to class and learn. But the exam is to measure how much the person learn.Learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable•Latent learning: Learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change.•Cognitive map: A learned mental image of a spatial environment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the environment change.
Tolman study (1930) ▧Rats in maze showed they were capable of latent learning▧Hypothesized that the rats used cognitive mEx: even though all the lights turned off, you know the direction of the house. Because there’s cognitive map in mind.Insight: Learning that occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all the elements of a problemLearning set: The ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solvedObservational (vicarious) learning: Learning by observing other people’s behavior based on the punishment and rewards others receive.Vicarious reinforcement (punishment):Reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affects the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models.Albert Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory•The Bobo doll experiment (1965) illustrated the influence of modeled aggression on preschool children.•Children imitated aggressive behaviors they observed.•This had important implications regarding unintentionally teaching aggression to children.Chapter 6Memory: The ability to remember the things that we have experienced, imagined, and learned.Sensory Register: Entry points for raw information from the senses. (everything comes through sensory)
- Winter '15
- Classical Conditioning, basilar membrane