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calcium and vitamin D daily. (Arcangelo et al. 2017).ConclusionAlthough COPD is an irreversible disease process, it is treatable. Smoking cessation is the most importance step in the treatment and progression of this disease process. The availability of multiple drug therapy assists in reducing symptoms, improving quality of life, and preventing exacerbation. However, when these medicationsare administered to elderly patients, precautions should be taken to prevent the occurrences of adverse side effects. ReferenceAfonso, A. S. M., Verhamme, K. M. C., Sturkenboom, M. C. J. M., & Brusselle, G. G. O.(2011). COPD in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and survival. Respiratory Medicine, 105(12), 1872-84. doi:Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach(4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Roland, J. (2016). What Is the Pathophysiology of COPD? Retrieved form