Are variables that are kept constant to accurately

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are variables that are kept constant to accurately test the impact of an independent variable-a causal relationship is one in which a condition or variable leads to a certain consequence -causation is the relationship between cause and effect-correlations, unlike causes, are not laws because they do not guarantee a certain effect; a correlation is an indication that one factor might be a cause for another factor-causes always create the same effects, correlations do not-there are three types of correlations – positive, negative, and spurious-a positive correlationinvolves two variables moving in a parallel direction; in other words, you can find a positive correlation when variables increase or decrease together-a negative correlation occurs when the variables move in opposite directions-spurious means not genuine or authentic, so spurious correlation occurs when two variables appear to be related, but actually have a different cause-social research is investigation conducted by social scientists-the first stage of the research model involves determining what you want to study-after you select a topic, you’ll need to perform a literature review, which is a study of relevant academic articlesand information
-after you have completed the initial research of your topic, formulate a hypothesis; don’t confuse hypothesis with theory, which is a comprehensive and systematic explanation of events that lead to testable predictions; these testable predictions are the basis for a hypothesiswhich involves a suggestion about how variables relate-concepts are abstract ideas that are impossible to measure-turning abstract ideas into something measurable is called operationalizing the variables-once you have a hypothesis, you have to test it to see whether data support or refute your idea; collecting data means using a research design to help you, which refers to the process used to find information-for research to be reliable, or able to be trusted, you must measure things in the same way, every time; validity assures that you’re actually measuring the thing you set out to measure in the first place-comparative studies use data from different sources in order to evaluate them against each other-cross-sectional studies look at an event at a single point in time-longitudinal studies include data from observations over time using a specific group of people called a cohort-a survey is an investigation of the opinions or experiences of a group of people by asking them questions-sociologists generally use the following seven steps to conduct a survey:-clarify your purpose: what do I want to find out?-define your population: who do I want to study?-choose a sample: I can’t study everyone so I have to choose a few people to represent the entire population-prepare questions: do my questions really ask what I think they are asking?

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