Chemistry_Grade_10-12 (1).pdf

Interesting fact erest fact there are twenty

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Interesting Fact erest Fact There are twenty different amino acids that exist. All cells, both plant and animal, build their proteins from only twenty amino acids. At first, this seems like a very small number, especially considering the huge number of different 200
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CHAPTER 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES - GRADE 12 10.6 proteins that exist. However, if you consider that most proteins are made up of polypeptide chains that contain at least 100 amino acids, you will start to realise the endless possible combinations of amino acids that are available. The functions of proteins Proteins have a number of functions in living organisms. Structural proteins such as collagen in animal connective tissue and keratin in hair, horns and feather quills, all provide support. Storage proteins such as albumin in egg white provide a source of energy. Plants store proteins in their seeds to provide energy for the new growing plant. Transport proteins transport other substances in the body. Haemoglobin in the blood for example, is a protein that contains iron. Haemoglobin has an affinity (attraction) for oxygen and so this is how oxygen is transported around the body in the blood. Hormonal proteins coordinate the body’s activities. Insulin for example, is a hormonal protein that controls the sugar levels in the blood. Enzymes are chemical catalysts and speed up chemical reactions. Digestive enzymes such as salivary amylase in your saliva, help to break down polymers in food. Enzymes play an important role in all cellular reactions such as respiration, photosynthesis and many others. Activity :: Research Project : Macromolecules in our daily diet 1. In order to keep our bodies healthy, it is important that we eat a balanced diet with the right amounts of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Fats are an important source of energy, they provide insulation for the body, and they also provide a protective layer around many vital organs. Our bodies also need certain essential vitamins and minerals. Most food packaging has a label that provides this information. Choose a number of different food items that you eat. Look at the food label for each, and then complete the following table: Food Carbohydrates (%) Proteins (%) Fats (%) (a) Which food type contains the largest proportion of protein? (b) Which food type contains the largest proportion of carbohydrates? (c) Which of the food types you have listed would you consider to be the ’healthiest’? Give a reason for your answer. 2. In an effort to lose weight, many people choose to diet . There are many diets on offer, each of which is based on particular theories about how to lose weight most effectively. Look at the list of diets below: Vegetarian diet Low fat diet Atkin’s diet 201
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10.6 CHAPTER 10. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES - GRADE 12 Weight Watchers For each of these diets, answer the following questions: (a) What theory of weight loss does each type of diet propose?
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