Medeiros et al. 2017 implied, that the existence of pressure ulcers causes stress for the nursing team due to daily dressing changes and other preventative measure along with their normal nursing duties and can lead to a healthcare professional not being diligent in the prevention methods required for these patients. Reliability concentrates on the consistency of a measurement method to ensure that a test produces similar scores with repeat testing (Groves & Gray, 2019). Medeiros et al. 2017 and researchers collected their pressure ulcer data while nursing staff were bathing the patient in bed because it was the appropriate moment for identifying, evaluating, and classifying the pressure ulcers. Following collection, the data was entered into a Microsoft Excel worksheet and then exported for analysis in the Statistical Package for Social Science (Medeiros et al., 2017). Using test-retest reliability, one could ensure the reliability of the measurements of the pressure ulcers across different researchers are repeating the same measurements (Grove & Gray, 2019). Otherwise, there were no actual test being run or equipment being utilized; the entire article is regarding the prevalence of pressure ulcers in ICU patients. “The validity of an instrument is a determination of how well the instrument measures the abstract concept being examined” (Grove & Gray, 2019). Although the sample size is small the researchers in this article tested multiple variables when assessing the pressure ulcers in these individuals (Medeiros et al., 2017). The sample consisted of 29 bed confined patients, twenty- four were males, five were female. They tested the age ranges of 18-25 years, 26-33 years, 34-
4 PREVENTION 41 years, 42-49 years, 50-57 years, and greater the 58 years old. The researches also looked at the length of hospital stay and categorized them at: 1-15 days, 16-30 days, 31-45 days, and greater than 46 days to evaluate the prevalence of pressure ulcers in these patients (Medeiros et al., 2017). Medeiros et al., also placed the patients in categories based on the stage and location of pressure ulcer, staging being stage 1-4 and unstageable. The locations that the pressure ulcers were found were the ear, penis, calcaneus, elbow, middle ankle, occipital, trochanter, and sacrum (Medeiros et al., 2017). Since small sample sizes are at risk of being overly representative of small subgroups, I feel that the sample size in this research article is a downfall of this study (Groves & Gray 2019). The researchers took their sample from across five different ICUs but only four of the ICUs were used in the study, with a total of 39 beds. Of those 39 beds the inclusion criteria were: hospitalization for at least 24 hours, obtained informed consent, and aged equal to or greater than 18 years old (Medeiros et al., 2017). I feel that had the sample size been larger, say across
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