actions) is ideological as it generates ➢ (a) physical, moral and aesthetic superiority ➢ (b) delegitimize behaviors, stigmas & sanctions ➢ (c) restrictions in accesses to mobility, freedom & safety Representing Difference ❖ By defining itself in opposition to homosexuality, heterosexuality actually calls homosexuality into being . ❖ For example, Ellen (1997) ❖ By acting outside of gender norms, some may feel compelled to declare what is being hailed into being.
PART TWO - Considering Difference The Normal & the Deviant ❖ Representations offer positions for us, through which we recognize images as similar, or different from, ourselves. ❖ We define ourselves in changing relation to - comparison to - those meanings ❖ Images change over time and the meanings which are legitimated by the social or cultural context change as well. ❖ Michel Foucault: ➢ Marginalized identities are not just oppressed by power they are also constructed as deviant by that same power and its structures ❖ Judith Butler: ➢ a) heterosexuality is dependent upon that-what-it-is-not: homosexual (queer) ➢ b) “hetero & homo are haunted by the other , and the homosexual comes to represent the “terrifying [sexual] other” of the heterosexual” ➢ Ex: the colloquial use of “no homo” is more what I’m not than what I am. ❖ Adrienne Rich: ➢ Concept: Compulsory Heterosexuality: ■ For example: popular culture portrays heterosexuality as “inevitable, expected, normal, and positions all other sexualities as deviant or ‘Other’” ■ Compulsory heterosexuality – aka heteronormativity - functions to underline the fact that heterosexuality is an institution, a practice, with its own set of expectations, norms and principles of conduct – and includes as sanctions and punishments therein. Subverting the Gaze (M/W) ❖ Riverdale (2018) ❖ Challenges the Male Gaze and its sexual objectification of women in two ways: ➢ (a) all four bodies are equally exposed to sexual objectification and both are more equal, and also both become active agents in their objectification & subjectification (ex: Nussbaum) ➢ (b) the camera may deny an active male objectification of the two female bodies by compelling the AMG to simultaneously consume the sexualized and objectified male body as well, and thus disrupting their gaze.
PART THREE - Representing Sexual Difference Judith Butler ❖ If gender is “a regulated process of repetition” then it is also possible to perform gender differently or shift it, temporarily or otherwise ❖ For example: ➢ (a) the performativity of “drag culture” which is not the same as a transperson, not the same as being transgender. ➢ (b) presumably comedy or parody based demonstrations of traditional gender roles and performance. Drag/Gender Performance ❖ Mrs. Doubtfire ❖ Tootsie Judith Butler ❖ For Butler, we can “act gender in ways which draw attention to the constructed nature of heterosexual identities”. ❖ She states, “we may investigate gender as a form of heteronormative drag performed by a heterosexual person” ❖ Additionally, “highlighting that gender is able to be performed in an exaggerated manner, performances such as drag effectively reveal the imitative nature of all gender identities.” ➢ For example: “is that what you’re wearing? (L) “Normal” (R ) Drag
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 30 pages?