Increases willingness of females to initiate social

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Increases willingness of females to initiate social contact with males females exposed to alpha androstenol were much more receptive to male-initiated contact more likely to seek out male company less likely to seek female company
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BOX 6.2 Human Pheromones
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Figure 8.7 Social bonding is mediated by oxytocin and vasopressin in prairie voles (Part 1)
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Emotions & Close Relationships Trust is the mediator of cooperative relationships Friendships & romantic relationships Role of oxytocin Neuropeptide that gets released in your brain in response to uterine contraction, lactation, maternal bonding, and sexual intercourse Oxytocin in animals increase pair bonding and care giving Oxytocin in humans in experiments increases trust Related to love? » Probably related to love more than desire
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Emotions & Oxytocin Touch can promote closeness Important in soothing, flirtation, greeting, & playing Important in close relationships Touch causes orbitiofrontal cortex activation which is important in social judements and reinforcement Touch causes oxytocin to be released Touch reduces stress by reducing cortisol levels (your stress hormone) Encourages reciprocity Communication of prosocial emotions
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Emotions & Touch
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An integrative and translational model using oxytocin to enhance prosocial behavior: from animal and human social behavior to ASD's social dysfunction. Yamasue H et al. J. Neurosci. 2012;32:14109-14117a ©2012 by Society for Neuroscience
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Oxytocin Receptors
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Oxytocin Estrogen interactions
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Testosterone/Aggression Link There is a positive correlation between testosterone levels and aggression Direction of causality? Behaving aggressively increases testosterone Testosterone levels are higher among prisoners convicted of violent crimes than those convicted of nonviolent crimes Once incarcerated, prisoners with higher testosterone levels violated more prison rules People opting for sex reassignment show more aggression as testosterone is increased Intermale aggressiveness usually begins at puberty In M rats castration reduces aggression Injections of T reinstates the reduced aggression
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Human Aggression & Hormones M are generally more physically aggressive than F Evidence Castrated sex-offenders show less aggressive attacks along with a decline in sex drive Lack of randomization Chemical castration (steroid inhibitors) seem to decrease sex-related but not other kinds of aggression Positive correlation between a M T level & amount of aggressiveness
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