83 technical details disperse dye with nanosized

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8.3 Technical Details Disperse dye with nanosized particles has been printed onto 100 % polyester fabric. The dye has been milled and treated with ultrasound for various time durations so as to get tiny dye particles dispersible in the printing paste without adding a dis- persing agent, as the size of nanoparticles is small enough to diffuse into the hydrophobic fi bres properly. All materials used were of analytical grade (Osman and Khairy 2013 ). The disperse dye has been ground into fi ner particle size. The dye powder was sealed in a hardened steel vial (AISI 44 °C stainless steel) using hardened steel balls of 6 mm diameter. Milling was performed using a ball powder mass ratio of 4:1. The dye was milled at different intervals, such as 4, 6, 9 and 25 days. After each milling interval, the particle size of the resulted dye powder was measured. The smallest particle size of 23 nm chosen was obtained from milling the dye powder for 25 days. Two stock solutions were prepared using the Advances in Nanotextile Finishes An Approach Towards Sustainability 25
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milled nanoparticle dye powder of 1 and 3 %, where 1 and 3 g of dye powder was dispersed in 99 and 97 mL of distilled water respectively. Each dispersion has been irradiated with ultrasound waves (720 kHz) and stirred at 80 °C for various time durations. To investigate each factor, two printing pastes were prepared for each parameter containing the two different dye concentrations. The pH was adjusted at 6 using sodium dihydrogen phosphate. The printing paste was applied to fabric through fl at-screen printing technique and then samples were left to dry at room tempera- ture. Fixation of dye was carried out with two methods, namely steaming at 130 °C for 30 min and thermo fi xation at 140 °C for 10 min to determine the optimal fi xation method that results in best K/S values. The fabrics were fi nally washed off using a 2 g/L non-ionic detergent (Sera Wash M-RK) at a liquor ratio of 1:50. Soaping treatment has carried out at 60 °C for 10 min. 8.4 In fl uences of Ultrasonic Irradiation and Particle Size Solutions with two different nanoparticle dye concentration have been exposed to ultrasound irradiation for 4, 6 and 8 h, respectively. Figure 18 depicts the colour strength values of the prints, both steamed and thermo fi xed. It is obvious that ultrasound treatment of both stock dye solutions has a great in fl uence on the colour yield of the printed polyester fabrics. To determine the best dye fi xation method, steaming and thermo fi xation are applied on the prints separately using both dye concentrations. For steamed prints, optimum K/S enhancement reaches 85.4 and 53.9 % for polyester prints with 1 and 3 % stock solutions respectively compared with the untreated dye solution with ultrasound waves. These great results are due to the fact that ultrasound enhances the dye molecule s diffusion into the fi bres Fig. 18 In fl uence of ultrasound exposure duration on K / S values of steamed and thermo fi xed polyester prints (Osman and Khairy 2013 ) 26 N. Gokarneshan et al.
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(Broadbent 2001
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  • Fall '19
  • N. Gokarneshan

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