introduced a policy to reduce logging and increase the planting of trees. From then on, only the shogun and daimyo could authorise the use of wood. The Tokugawa shogunate also established a policy of planting Japanese cedar trees and controlled who could own land in forest areas. The Tokugawa banned individual ownership of forested land, and limited access to forests by the daimyo . Communities were encouraged to plant trees on common land. Local villages managed the forests by planting seedlings, cutting trees selectively and patrolling forest areas to stop the illegal removal of timber. By 1724, timber harvesting had declined by 60 per cent. It remained at low levels for the next 30 years to allow Japan’s forests to recover. Other changes that took place in Japan under the rule of the shoguns related to the construction of cities, the development of agriculture and the establishment of environmental policies. When the Tokugawa Shogunate began its rule in 1603, it ended the conflict of the previous four centuries. The Tokugawa (or Edo) period brought 250 years of stability to Japan. The shogun had national authority, and his daimyo had regional authority. In response to this stability and peace, a new emphasis on education began, towns sprang up, and merchants and traders became more and more important. More sophisticated ways of managing the economy and its natural resources (such as forests) were also developed. The development of Edo After coming to power in 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu began a period of rapid construction and development in his capital of Edo – particularly the construction of Edo Castle. Canals were built to deliver clean water and to drain marshland. Extensive road networks were built to support the constant travel of daimyo and their samurai to and from the new centre of Japanese society – even though Kyoto (where the emperor lived) was still officially the capital. Towns and businesses grew along the roads. By 1721, the feudal town of Edo had become the largest city in the world, with over one million residents (see Source 1). Today, Edo is known as Tokyo and is still one of the largest cities in the world, with a population of more than 35 million. 486 oxford big ideas humanities 8 victorian curriculum 487 chapter 15 japan under the shoguns 15C How did Japan change during the rule of the shoguns? DRAFT
Source 1 This 550-year-old bonsai pine tree was pruned by shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu. 15.12 Changes in arts and culture Source 2 On autumn nights the dew is colder than ever— in every clump of grasses the insects weep Tanka from the Kokinshu (author unknown) From tanka poetry, two other forms of poetry developed. These were known as renga and haiku . Renga poetry was written by many poets working together. There were sometimes hundreds of stanzas (verses). The opening stanza of the renga became what we now know as haiku . Haiku became very popular in the 17th century. Haiku poems are made up of 17 syllables (single sound units) divided into three parts – the fi rst part has fi ve syllables, the second has
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