Perception and action are coupled throughout the human life span The infant is

Perception and action are coupled throughout the

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Perception and action are coupled throughout the human life span. The infant is by no means as helpless as it looks and is quite capable of some very complex and important actions. —Herb Pick Contemporary developmental psychologist, University of Minnesota
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184 CHAPTER 5 Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development Review How are perception and action coupled in development? Connect If perception and action are closely linked, can parents enhance their infants’ motor development or must it follow its own course? Reflect Your Own Personal Journey of Life Describe two examples not given in the text in which perception guides action. Then describe two examples not given in the text in which action guides perception. Review Connect Reflect LG3 Discuss the connection between perception and action reach your learning goals Thelen’s dynamic systems theory seeks to explain how motor behaviors are assembled by infants for perceiving and acting. Perception and action are coupled. According to this the- ory, motor skills are the result of many converging factors, such as the development of the nervous system, the body’s physical properties and its movement possibilities, the goal the child is motivated to reach, and environmental support for the skill. In the dynamic systems view, motor development involves far greater complexity than the unfolding of a genetic blueprint. Reflexes govern the newborn’s movements. They include the sucking, rooting, and Moro reflexes. Gross motor skills involve large-muscle activities. Key skills developed during infancy include control of posture and walking. Gross motor skills improve dramatically during childhood. Peak levels of physical performance often occur between 19 and 26 years of age. In general, older adults show a slowing of movement. Fine motor skills involve finely tuned motor actions. The onset of reaching and grasping marks a significant accomplishment. Fine motor skills continue to develop during childhood and then decline somewhat with aging. Neural noise and strategy have been proposed as possible explanations for the slowing of motor behavior in older adults. Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development LG1 Describe how motor skills develop The Dynamic Systems View Motor Development Reflexes Gross Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills LG2 Outline the course of sensory and perceptual development What Are Sensation and Perception? The Ecological View Visual Perception Sensory and Perceptual Development Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors. Perception is the inter- pretation of sensation. Created by the Gibsons, the ecological view states that people directly perceive information that exists in the world. Perception brings people in contact with the environment so that they can interact with and adapt to it. Affordances provide opportunities for interaction offered by objects that fit within our capabilities to perform activities. Researchers have
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