commuting home from work?" and "What barriers do you feel impede driving home safely after work." Existing literature provided the foundation for the broad topic areas in the interview questions. Construction of the interview questions emerged from the underlying presumptions of the professional background of the participants, using the model of impaired sleep and the service-learning model. Given healthcare providers' time restraints, the interview schedule is 30 minutes.Pilot study. Before data collection from the participants, a pilot study may be necessary to ascertain the clarity of the interview questions used in the study. The pilot study participants will include three health care professionals—one participant from each work-related shift —comparable to the target populationsof the study. The pilot study will represent an attempt to validate the research process by obtaining participants' perceptions of sleepy/drowsy driving and help to ensure clarity of the questions.
The three pilot study nurses may complete three supplementary questions specific for the pilot study respondents. The rationale for using a pilot study is to validate the interview instrument and the interview process. The coding for the pilot study participants was pilot respondents 1-3 (HCP1 through HCP3). The pilot study participants may respond individually to interview questions and three supplementary questions focused on the validity of the interview instrument and interview process. Thedata from the pilot study participant responses will not be a part of the study. Triangulation. In the study, triangulation of data sources may take place by interviewing different groups of nurses. Comparison of individual perceptions and experiences with others may contribute to ensuringa vibrant picture of the attitudes of the nurses (Shenton, 2004). Shenton explained further that verifyingviewpoints and experiences of individuals against others might produce a dynamic view of the attitudes and behavior of those studied.InstrumentationInstruments employed in qualitative research are few: the researcher is usually the tool for Data collection and analysis (Paisley & Reeves, 2001; Onwuegbuzie et al., 2010). The interview questions, as shown in Appendix F, emerged from the foundation of the study, guided by the three sub-questions: What challenges do nurses face in getting adequate sleep following overnight shifts, rotating shifts and extended work hours? How do nurses describe their experiences with sleepy/drowsy driving? What barriers do nurses feel impede driving home safely after work?Responses to the interview questions may reveal perceptions regarding drowsy/sleepy driving by healthcare professionals. The questions are appropriate because they provide an opportunity for the participants to offer in-depth information on their perceptions (Mack et al., 2005).