Singapore Fire Safety Engineering Guidelines 2015_1.pdf

C fse would need to consider this if the alternative

Info icon This preview shows pages 17–20. Sign up to view the full content.

(c) FSE would need to consider this if the alternative solution involves means of escape and/or engineered smoke control. 2.2.6 Sensitivity Test 6 Delay in detection time Delay in detection time (a) Failure of primary smoke/fire detection system (i.e. the first device that detects the smoke/fire). 2.2.7 Sensitivity Test 7 Smouldering Fire Smouldering Fire (a) This scenario addresses the concern regarding a slow, smouldering fire that poses a threat to sleeping occupants Such fires may fill the rooms with toxic gases but may not be large enough to be detected by fire alarms or other occupants. (b) Would typically be considered if the alternative solution involves sleeping occupancies.
Image of page 17

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

17 CHAPTER 3 3.0 AVAILABLE SAFE EGRESS TIME (ASET) Available safety egress time or ASET is the time available for escape for occupants. This is the calculated time interval between the time of ignition of a fire and the time at which conditions become untenable for the occupants to escape to a place of safety). As part of the performance based analysis, ASET is compared against Required Safe Egress Time (RSET) after applying the relevant safety factor. The factors that affect the ASET are discussed below. As not all input parameters can be accurately predicted, safety factors are applied to the analysis to cater to these uncertainties. Safety factors to be adopted are discussed in Chapter 9. 3.1 Fire hazards The FSE would need to identify all possible fire hazards within the scope of his/her study and determine which would be selected as design fires. Fire hazards 3.2 Design Fires Depending on the scope and objectives of the fire engineering analysis, the design fires would generally fall into two main categories, which are pre and post flashover fires. Design Fires (a) Pre-Flashover fires are generally used for most design fires unless the design involves structural fire engineering analysis (where post flashover fires are used). For pre-flashover fire scenarios, the minimum details to be documented are as follows: Pre-flashover fires (i) Type and nature of fuel. The FSE would need to document the fuels present in the area of study. This includes the location, storage method, quantity or any other special characteristics/considerations. Type and nature of fuel
Image of page 18
18 (ii) Type of fire plumes (1) Axis-symmetric plumes at the centre of room of fire origin - Such plumes produce lower smoke entrainment rates and higher smoke temperatures, and are generally applicable to all fire scenarios. Axis-symmetric plumes (2) Corner plumes at corner of room of fire origin Such plumes produce lower smoke entrainment rates and are applicable to corner spaces that are most remote from ventilation openings/exhaust points. Corner plumes (3) Under a balcony/Spill plumes, window plumes and balcony/line plumes Such plumes produce higher smoke entrainment rates and lower smoke temperatures and are applicable to spaces containing intermediate/multiple levels such as atrium spaces and multi-storey buildings.
Image of page 19

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 20
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Three '18
  • Dr. Anthony
  • Microelectronics, Active fire protection, Fire protection, Computational fluid dynamics, Heat release rate, FSE

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern