Solar energy drives weather and climate patters winds

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Solar energy drives weather and climate patters: winds and ocean currentsfind more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
Autotrophs/Primary Producers:organisms that produce their own food energyPhototrophsturn light energy from Sun into chemical energy via photosynthesisPhotosynthesis: plants convert carbon dioxide(from air), water(ground), and solar energy into sugar(glucose) and oxygenHeterotrophs/Consumers:organisms that gain energy by feeding on other organismsPrimary Consumers: animals who eat plantsSecondary consumers: animals that eat other animals whom eat plantsEarliest photoautotroph was cyanobacteriaCellular Respiration: autotrophs and heterotrophs convert glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water, and energyOpposite of photosynthesisEnergy gained per glucose molecule in respiration is only 2/3 of energy input per glucose molecule in photosynthesisGeothermal EnergyHeat from Earth's interiorPowered primarily by radioactivity: release of radiation by radioisotopes as their nuclei spontaneously decay from earths core to surfaceInternal heat energy drives geological processesHeats magmaErupts volcanoesWarms ground water and thermal hot springsEnergy harnessed for commercial useJets of geothermally heated water sustained ecosystems in cold icy watersAnimals in this hydrothermal vent lived in hot watersDeep sea vents prevented photosynthesis; no lightfind more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
Chemosynthesis:deep-sea bacteria turn carbon dioxide, water, and hydrogen sulfide into glucose and other energy Geological SystemsLayers of EarthCore:consists mostly of iron and 6000*CHeat arises from intense pressure Mantle:consists of Upper and LowerAsthenosphere:portion of upper mantle with softer rock, close to melting temperature with some molten areas(tectonic plates move over this layer)Lithosphere:harder rock above asthenosphereIncludes uppermost mantle and crust(low density layer of rock)Convection: pushing mantle rock upward when warmed and downward as it coolsPlate Tectonics:Movement of lithospheric plates15 major tectonic plates3 Main Types of Plate BoundariesDivergent Plate Boundaries:move apart from one anotherMagma rise upward to surface and form new crustEx. Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland, IcelandTransform Plate Boundaries:grind alongside one another horizontally in opposite directionsMeet along strike-slip fault: fracture in Earth's crustGenerates earth quakesEx. Pacific Plate and North American Plate moving along San Andreas FaultConvergent Plate Boundaries: two plates come together/convergeMost powerful earthquakes: Tohoku earthquakefind more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
Oceanic crust made of basalt(denser) and continental crust made of graniteSubduction:denser plate descends into mantle/under less dense plateSubducted plate is heated and pressurized

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