DSST Business Ethics and Society 2

Essentially replaced the water pollution control act

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Essentially replaced the Water Pollution Control Act c) Goal was to clean up water in the US to be fishable and swimmable d) And to eliminate the discharge of all pollutants into navigable waters 81) Ethics in Government Act – in 1978 – US governments duties in relation to their ethical obligations a) (OGE) - Reauthorization Act of 1988 and 1996 – a small agency within the executive branch a.i) Originally part of the Office of Personnel Management a.ii) Became a separate agency on October 1, 1989 as part of the Office of Government Ethics Reauthorization Act of 1988 82) Ethics Reform Act of 1989 83) Sexual Har assment – any act, statement, or display that implies sexual consent as a condition of employment a) Title VII of the Civil Rights Act – it is illegal to issue punishment or adverse action against an employee for rejection of sexual advances b) Two types under Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964 b.i) Quid Pro Quo – when the agreement of refusal of sexual advances forms the basis for employment decisions b.ii) Hostile Environment - where unwelcome advances affects job performance, or an unpleasant work environment 84) Affirmative Action – the policy where employees remedy discriminatory practices to minorities by adhering to specific guidelines to achieve a diverse workforce a) Affirmative Action Programs began in the 1970s b) These programs called for minorities and women to be given special consideration in employment and education c) Critics say that such programs are a form of reverse discrimination against members of a majority group (white males) 85) Diversity Training – over half of the US companies sponsor diversity training, to raise awareness of the changing demographics in the workforce a) Employees need to be aware of equal opportunity legislation, affirmative action plans, and benefits of diversity in the workforce 86) Reverse Discrimination – when preference for the protected classes is practiced to the extent that the non-protected classes believe that they are being discriminated against a) Since the 1990s courts have restricted the application of AAPs b) Regents of the University of California vs Bakke (1978) the first Supreme Court case to address the constitutionality of affirmative action
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b.i) Alan Bakke, a white student, was refused admission to medical school even though his academic record was superior to the minority students who were accepted 87) Fair Employment Practices Committee was formed to enforce Executive Order 8802 – prohibited discrimination based on race, creed color, or national origin in defense industries and in the government a) President Franklin Roosevelt issued the Executive Order 8802 b) Blacks fought under white officers c) Blacks at home had trouble finding jobs because of discrimination policies 88) Equal Rights Amendment –in 1972 - prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex, after initially being proposed in 1923 a) Passed both the house and the Congress and was signed by President Nixon b)
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