I lost 1 or more electrons b anion negatively charged

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(i) Lost 1 or more electrons(b) Anion – negatively charged(i) Gained 1 or more electrons2. Polar molecule – electrically neutral molecule that has an uneven distributionof chargesA) Electrons are not shared evenly in covalent bondsB) As a result, the electrons spend more time in orbit around the atom withthe higher electronegativity1) Electronegativity – the tendency of an atom to gain electronsC) This causes one side of the molecule to be slightly negative and one to beslightly positiveD) Polar molecules mix well with water and are hydrophilic(“water loving”)E) Polar molecules also interact well with other polar molecules but notnonpolar moleculesF) Examples include water, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids3. Nonpolar molecules – electrically neutral molecule with the electrons sharedevenly by the atomsA) Result when both atoms of the bond have similar electronegativity values1) Electrons orbit equally around both atoms2) There are no charges on the moleculeB) Nonpolar molecules do not mix well with water and are hydrophobic(“water fearing”)C) Nonpolar molecules do not interact well with polar molecules and in
reality don’t “interact” with nonpolar molecules eitherD) Examples include lipids (fats), steroids, cholesterol, and oils4. Hydrogen bondsA) A hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an O or N is also attracted toanother O or N covalently bonded to a HIII. BiomoleculesA. Have the following characteristics1. Always contain C and H2. Always have covalent bonds3. Tend to be very large in size4. Associated with living thingsB. Composed of a carbon backbone1. All monosaccharides, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides have theseC. These molecules are the building blocks of all cells and determine both thestructure and function of the cellD. All biomolecules are created thru the dehydration synthesisreaction1. Involves the removal of H2O during the creation of a bond2. Requires an enzymeE. All biomolecules are split (digested) thru hydrolysis1. Involves the addition of H2O during the breaking of a bond2. Requires an enzyme (different from the one used to create the bond)F. 4 main classes of biomolecules1. Carbohydrates2. Lipids3. Proteins4. Nucleic acidsG. Carbohydrates1. Molecules composed of C, H, & O in a 1:2:1 ratio2. Carbohydrate variationsA) Monosaccharide – a simple carbohydrate usually containing only 3-7carbons (monomers)B) Disaccharide – a combination of 2 monosaccharides (polymer)C) Polysaccharide – a polymer consisting of 3 or more monosaccharides(polymer)3. The covalent bond holding together multiple monosaccharides is known as aglycosidic bond4. FunctionsA) Provide structural support & protection and acts as a nutrient/energysource5. ExamplesA) Monosaccharides1) Glucose, fructose, and galactose – used for energy2) Ribose & dexoyribose – used to make RNA & DNA (respectively)

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