2 for each You should be able to tell which stages of cellular respiration

2 for each you should be able to tell which stages of

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What are the ATP yields for each? 2 for each You should be able to tell which stages of cellular respiration produce ATP, NADH, FADH 2 and how many molecules of each. Glycolysis. In glycolysis, glucose—a six-carbon sugar—undergoes a series of chemical transformations. In the end, it gets converted into two molecules of pyruvate, a three- carbon organic molecule. In these reactions, ATP is made, and NAD+ is converted to NADH Pyruvate oxidation. Each pyruvate from glycolysis goes into the mitochondrial matrix—the innermost compartment of mitochondria. There, it’s converted into a two-carbon molecule bound to Coenzyme A, known as acetyl CoA. Carbon dioxide is released and NADH is generated. Citric acid cycle. The acetyl CoA made in the last step combines with a four-carbon
molecule and goes through a cycle of reactions, ultimately regenerating the four-carbon starting molecule. ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced, and carbon dioxide is released. Oxidative phosphorylation. The NADH and FADH2 made in other steps deposit their electrons in the electron transport chain, turning back into their "empty" forms (NAD+ and FAD). As electrons move down the chain, energy is released and used to pump protons out of the matrix, forming a gradient. Protons flow back into the matrix through an enzyme called ATP synthase, making ATP. At the end of the electron transport chain, oxygen accepts electrons and takes up protons to form water. You should be able to compare and contrast both cellular respiration and photosynthesis. How are these pathways dependent on each other? Chapter 9 What are the different types of cell division mechanisms? Mitosis-produces 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cells Meiosis: a germ cell splits to make four new sex cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the original germ cell. What is the difference between somatic and sex cells? Somatic cells are any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells. Sex cells are gametes and are unique to organism that reproduce sexually. In plants and animals, there are 2 types of sex cells, male and female. Male sex cells are sperm and female sex cells are eggs What are chromosomes? A thread like structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells carrying genetic information in the form of genes. A dna double helix and associated proteins that help to organize and regulate the use of the DNA What are genes? Genes the unit of hereditary; a segment of dna located at a particular place on a chromosome that usually encodes the information for the amino acid sequence of a protein and hence, a particular trait a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

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