Processed chickenturkey are commonly used in canned

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Processed chicken/turkey are commonly used in canned or dried soups, frozen dinners, pot pies, sausages, hot dogs, burgers, and bologna. Other larger pieces of processed poultry are sold as meat minus the bone, where they have been mechanically deboned. The physical removal of meat from the bone mechanically causes redistribution of collagen fibers and myofibril proteins around fat globules, creating a stable meat emulsion. A brine mixture containing water, salt, and phosphates is then added to improve flavor and cohesiveness. Gums such as carrageenan are then added to absorb water, creating a gel-like texture that prevents water loss during heating and makes slicing easier. 8) When is poultry ‘done’? (include both internal temperature & other visual/physical signs) Poultry must be heated to an internal temperature of 165 degrees. Skin on roasted poultry will be golden brown, touched with one or two fingers and feels firm, and time/weight tables 9) Define the following terms from Chapter 8: (continued on next page) a. poultry type: refers to whether it is fresh, frozen, cooked, sliced, canned, or dehydrated b. poultry style: refers to the degree to which it has been cleaned or processed c. eviscerate: remove entrails from body cavity d. truss: tie legs and wings against body of bird to prevent them from overcooking before breast is done and enhance presentation e. baste: using a wide spoon or brush, or special tool to periodically cover the bird with liquid from the drippings, butter, or sauce to help prevent drying of skin and meat f. mirepoix: collection of lightly sautéed, chopped vegetables flavored with herbs and spices g. broilers/fryers: chickens of either sex, slaughtered under 10 weeks, weighing 3-5 lbs and can be used for any cooking type. Soft skin, tender meat, flexible breastbone. h. Roasters: chickens of either sex, slaughtered at 10-12 weeks and 6-8 lbs. Breastbone is less flexible because of calcification i. Capons: neutered male chickens that usually reach market under 4 months of age and weighing 12-14 lbs. Tenderness/juiciness is comparable to broiler/fryer j. Cornish game hens: bred by crossing Cornish hen with another common breed, slaughtered at 5-6 weeks and weighing not more than 2 lbs. Always very tender meat Page 2 of 7
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Chapter 9: Fish & Shellfish 1) How are fish & shellfish classified? What kinds are vertebrates vs. invertebrates? Fish/shellfish are classified as vertebrate vs. invertebrate, saltwater or freshwater, and lean or fat. Vertebrates have a backbone while invertebrates do not. 2) With respect to nutrition content, how does the fish meat compare to others (say beef/pork)? Fish is 18-20% protein, which makes it comparable to beef or poultry 3) What factors contribute to the tenderness of fish? Collagen, amino acid content, and muscle structure 4) Describe the requirements for inspection and grading of finfish.
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  • Summer '17
  • Tracy Grgich

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