PLCP 3410 Study Guide --PART II

Holds elections for a president as well as parliament

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holds elections for a president as well as parliament with a prime minister Both confessionalism and semipresidentialism are critiqued as highly volatile and fragile System emerged as outcome of the National Pact between Christian Maronites and Sunni Muslims Christian Maronites preferred Lebanese remain under French support Sunni Muslims advocated Lebanese unification with Syria Compromise: Lebanon was to be an independent country, but the institutional arrangement would guarantee protection of both Muslim and Christian interests President would be Maronite Christian Prime minister a Sunni Muslim Speaker of the house a Shiite Ratio of the parliamentary seats would be 6:5 Christians:Muslims Population ratio began to change because of faster Muslim growth National Pact ended up exacerbating tensions Brief civil war in 1958 and then into longer conflict from 1975 – 1990 Taif Accord (1990): maintained confessional system but altered distribution of power among president, prime minister, etc. Lebanon largely left under Syrian control Maintained troops as well as a heavy hand in Lebanese politics 2005 US pressured Syria to withdraw troops (but no influence) System remains fragile and unable to control actors Factor that contributed to 2006 war with Israel Lebanon still finds inability to form governments after elections, early breakdown governments, and therefore long periods of paralysis Palestinian Authority Not a state, so governing authority is not a regime, per se Hurt by severe restrictions on civil and political liberties Following 2006 elections, governance in the PA effectively collapsed 2007 Hama taking control over Gaza Increasing clampdown by Fatah in the West Bank Elections were held for both president and parliament, with subsequent appointment of prime minister Both positions held great power Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) Elections demonstrate that despite restrictions on civil and political liberties, elections were fair enough to allow turnover of power Hamas surprised both supporters and opponents by winning the majority PLC seats Outcome ran directly counter to wishes of powerful external actors (Israel and US)
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US, EU, and Israel attempted to starve Hamas-led government US, EU withdrew aid and Israel didn’t turnover taxes Opposition from external actors contributed to breakdown of system since 2006 US, EU, and Israel would intervene if PA enjoyed sovereignty PA had neither power of taxation not the ability to defend borders Toward Democracy? Given important role that democracy may play in promoting effective governance and development, are regimes in the MENA likely to transition to democracy?
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  • Spring '13
  • The Land, Saudi Arabia, Palestinian identity, Al Saud

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