3.Garfield's Secretary of State James Blaine(Half-Breed leader) battled his arch-enemy, Stalwart Roscoe Conkling(Stalwart leader) at every chance.2.Garfield was assassinatedby Charles J. Guiteau in September of 18813.Arthurbecame president.1.Despite being considered a partisan politician, Arthur was reform-minded. He largely stood firm against his Stalwart buddies in their quest for the riches that come with power2.The Pendleton Actwas the height of political reform. It was called the "Magna Carta of civil service reform" meaning it required merit to get jobs, not simply knowing someone in a high position.3.The Civil Service Commissionawarded jobs based on performance rather than on how much "pull" a person had (how many buddies they had in high places).4.Pendleton Act first affected 10% of federal jobs, but it (a) stopped the worst offenses of giving jobs to people one knew (buddies) and (b) it set the tone for civil service reform inthe future.The Blaine-Cleveland Mudslingers of 18841.The Republicans nominated James G. Blainefor president in the 1884 election.2.Reform-minded Republicans didn't like this choice and went over to the Democrats. They are called "Mugwumps"3.The Democrats nominated Grover Clevelandas their candidate.a.The mudslinging reached the worst level up until that point during the campaign. A popular topic was Cleveland's affair and the child it had produced some 8 years earlier.1.Despite the drama that Cleveland had fathered a bastard love-child, he won the election.“Old Grover” Takes Over1.Cleveland was the first Democratic president after 28 years of Republicans in the White House. He supported laissez-fairecapitalism2.He helped bridge the North-South gap by naming two former Confederates to his cabinet.3.Cleveland supported civil service reform4.Two former Confederates were named by Cleveland to his cabinet. He tried to follow the merit system (jobs went to the qualified), but was largely unsuccessful with this approach.a.When pressure mounted, Cleveland fired about 80,000 of 120,000 federal employees. 40,000 were Republicans dismissed to open up jobs for Democrats.1.Military pensions were a pain to Cleveland. The G.A.R.(Grand Army of the Republic) had considerable political clout & was mostly Republican. They pushed several bills through Congressthat gave pensions to loads of veterans; many of the bills were simply money-grabbers.