Pharmacology portion of NCLEX review.odt

Treatment remove iv catheter and apply light pressure

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Treatment- Remove IV catheter and apply light pressure if bleeding; monitor for signs of phlebitis and treat. Venous spasm: Prevention- Allow time for vein diameter to return after tourniquet is removed; infuse fluids at room temperature. Treatment- Temporarily slow infusion rate; apply WARM compress. What is TPN and how is it maintained? TPN is a hypertonic solution containing dextrose, proteins, electrolytes, minerals, trace elements, and insulin prescribed according to the client's needs and administered via central venous device( PICC, subclavian, or IJ). Care and maintenance for TPN: Infusion pump must be used Monitor weight daily Monitor and record I&O, noting fluid balance Monitor serum glucose levels q4-6hrs Monitor for signs of infections Change dressing q48-72hrs per facility protocol IV tubing and fluids should be changed q24hrs
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4 If TPN solution is temporarily unavailable, dextrose 10% in water should be administered to prevent hypoglycemia. (pg.30 Comprehensive NCLEX-PN Review) How do you prevent/treat CVC complications? Pneumothorax: Prevent- use ultrasound to locate veins, avoid subclavian insertion when possible/ Treatment-administer oxygen, assist provider with chest tube insertion. Lumen occlusion: Prevent- flush promptly w/ NS between, before, and after each medication. Treatment- Use 10mL syringe with a pulsing motion. Air embolism- Prevent- have client lie flat when changing administration set or needleless connectors, ask client to perform Valsalva maneuver if possible. Treatment- Place the client is left lateral trendelenburg, administer oxygen. Bloodstream infection: Prevent-Maintain sterile technique Treatment-Change entire infusion system, notify provider, obtain cultures, and administer antibiotics. Name the antidote for each medication: Acetaminophen- Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) Benzodiazepine- Flumazenil (Romazicon) Curare- Edrophonium (Tensilon) Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Cyanide poisoning- Methylene blue Digitalis-Digoxin immune FAB (Digibind) Ethylene poisoning-Fomepizole (Antizol) Heparin and enoxaparin(Lovenox)- Protamine Sulfate Iron- Deferoxamine(Desferal) Lead- Succimer(Chemet) Mag Sulfate- Calcium gluconate 10% (Kalcinate) Narcotics-Nalaxone(Narcan) Warfarin-Phytonadione(vitamin K) Common drug class suffixes. List the medication for each suffix. -dipine ....... Calcium channel blocker -afil ............ erectile dysfunction -caine ........ Anesthetic -pril ............ ACE inhibitors -pam .......... Benzo -lam ........... Benzo -statin ........ Antilipidemic -asone ....... Corticosteroid -solone ...... Corticosteroid -olol ........... Beta blockers -cillin .......... Penicillin -ide ............ Oral hypoglycemic -prazole ..... PPI
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5 -vir ............. Antiviral -ase ........... Thrombolytic -azine ........ Antimetic -phylline .... Bronchodilator -arin .......... Anticoagulant -tidine ........ Antiulcer -zine .......... Antihistamine -cycline ...... Antibiotic -mycine ...... Aminogylcoside -floxacin ...... Antibiotic -tyline .......... TCA's -pram,-ine...SSRI Describe each drug administration route.
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