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14 culture as an iceberg a strong culture may affect

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Unformatted text preview: 14 Culture as an Iceberg: A strong culture may affect how people feel and act in the organization, the types of employees hired and retained, the company’s ability to adapt to changes in the external environment (ex. if there’s a culture of innovation), or it may even give the company a competitive advantage. Two Forces that Drive Homogeneity : 1. Bottom-Up Forces “The people make the place.” Involves the process of attraction, selection, attrition, The ASA Model by Schneider : says hired people don’t need training to fit into the culture because they’re chosen based on the values, beliefs, and attitudes they share with the firm/organization: o Attraction — people are attracted to organizations that they fit in o Selection— organizations select individuals who hold the attributes they desire o Attrition— errors in the attraction-selection phases will be corrected by attrition (turnover) ASA is a cycle that continuously occurs in an organization; overtime, ASA cycles result in homogeneity. 2. Top-Down Forces People take on certain organizational characteristics upon entry, which involves the process of Socialization : o Pre-Arrival: period of learning that occurs before a new employee joins an organization, involves some aspects of attraction and selection o Encounter: new employee sees what the organization’s like and confront the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge; similar to selection or training, etc o Metamorphosis: new employee changes and adjusts to the work/organization; similar to aspects of attrition because about the change or adjustment The Power of Socialization : • Milgram Experiment showed Obedience to Authority : superior power leads to immoral actions 15 Bulls Eye View on Values by Schein Visible Culture: observable, tend to get the most attention and is the visible pattern Expressed Values : values that are quantified and openly promoted and discussed, not so visible Core Values : invisible, intrinsic values that bind the culture together; what people take for granted At the top are artifacts , including stated norms and other visible, tangible things that show an organization’s values. In the middle are the values or beliefs, which addresses the question, “why do we think?” At the bottom are the basic assumptions, regarding “what do we take for granted?” • Zimbardo Experiment showed Roles : certain roles make people socialize or use their power easily A Person-Job Fit doesn’t guarantee a fit with the organization’s values, beliefs, and attitudes, so as a parallel, there’s the Person-Organization Fit . This focuses on the values, beliefs, and attitudes . This is done through (1) Recruitment & Selection or (2) Training & Development . • Functions: o Defines boundaries and conveys a sense of identity o Facilitates commitment o Enhances stability o Serves as a control mechanism • Dysfunctions: o Creates a barrier to change (because leads to homogeneity) link to ASA Model* o Creates a barrier to diversity Four Types of Culture : o Baseball Team-- o Club -- o Academy -- o Fortress -- 16...
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14 Culture as an Iceberg A strong culture may affect how...

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