Their empire was destroyed by the Romans in 64 B.C.
 PEOPLE OF TODAY IN THE MIDDLE EAST (PEOPLES OF SAHEL ARE NOT INCLUDED) ARABS constitute the majority of the peoples in the realm. TURKS inhabit Ajerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Azerbaijani’s (Turks) also live in NW Iran. PERSIANS inhabit Iran and Tajikistan. BAKHTIARI are the aristocratic tribe members of Iran. BEDOUINS are a nomadic people, mainly in Saudi Arabia. KURDS are a semi-nomadic people in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. SAUDI’S are the ruling dynasty of most of the Arabian Peninsula. ASHKENAZIM JEWS are Hebrews of European and U.S. origin. SEPHARDIC JEWS are Hebrews of Asian and N African origin. LANGUAGES – Arabic is the dominant language of the realm. Arabic is a Afro-Asiatic language, and Semitic sub-family. Arabic is one of the official languages in Israel, among Palestinians. Arabic is not usually spoken in: Azerbaijan, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mali, Niger, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Turkic is part of the Altaic language family. Azeri = Azerbaijan, Kazakh = Kazkhstan, Kyrgyz = Kyrgyzstan, Turkish = Turkey, Turkmen = Turkmenistan, Uzbek = Uzbekistan Farsi (Persian) is part of the Indo-European language family. Farsi = Iran, Tajik = Tajikistan Hebrew is an Afro-Asiatic language, and Semitic sub-family. Kurdish is yet another Indo-European language
 RELIGIONS over one-half of world’s people embrace one of the religion’s founded in this realm JUDAISM (founded by Abraham) 3 major groups – Orthodox = strict adherence to Torah, legalistic Conservative = middle of road acceptance of Torah Reform = faith compatible with contemporary values Hebrew calendar = 5761 in 2000 (Yom Kippur is the holiest day.) CHRISTIANITY (founded by Jesus Christ) 3 major groups in the realm – Eastern Orthodox = Greek philosophy, creeds are act of worship Roman Catholic = Roman law, creeds are standards of belief Coptic Christians = similar to Eastern Orthodox, except nature of Christ Christian church formally split between East and West (1054) Ten (10) crusades (1095-1291) ISLAM (founded by Mohammed in 622) Islam means ‘submission to God’ 5 pillars of Islamic faith and duty – There is no God, but ALLAH Pray 5 times per day Give regularly to charity Fast during the day during month of Ramadan Make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca, called the hajj 2 major groups – Sunni = Caliph came from a Mecca tribe, staid and simple religious worship about 80% of Muslims are Sunni. Shi’a (Shi’ite) = Caliph descended from Ali, no separation of church from state, ecstatic religious worship Islamic calendar = 1421 in 2000, a lunar calendar in which months retrogress ECONOMIC QUALITIES GENERAL OVERVIEW – P.W. English’s Economic Trilogy = Description of Traditional Iran: City Dwellers own the land and animals, collect and process raw materials, sell sugar, tea, cloth, and metal goods, provide religious leadership, entertainment, and services Villagers raise the fruit, vegetables, and grains Tribe Members raise the livestock for wool and hides Major Agricultural Innovations of Realm = Cereals
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- Summer '09
- Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf, United Arab Emirates