USCanada 1881 2304 3895 f Na 1421 Rest of World 223 Franchises 959 Total 5765

Uscanada 1881 2304 3895 f na 1421 rest of world 223

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US/Canada 1881 2304 3895 f N/a 1421 Rest of World 223 Franchises 959 Total 5765 8409 9786 13445 h 13794 h 16485 Stores UK 252 251 265 292 e 283 296 Europe 2 5 9 11 29 40 US/Canada 190 227 376 g 320 328 Hong Kong 7 10 Franchises N/a N/a N/a N/a 73 115 Total 254 d 446 d 501 d 679 d 712 779 Notes (a) The data reported by the company changed often in the reporting period, and terminology is somewhat loose in their reports. It is best to treat the table as estimates and tendencies therefore; (b) Estimated; (c) Initial years re ect the export business, later years Hong Kong plus franchises; (d) Franchise store numbers excluded as unknown; (e) Includes Republic of Ireland stores and oorspace; (f) Includes stores in the Rest of World; (g) Includes Hong Kong stores as well; and (h) Excludes franchise store oorspace. Source : Constructed from company Annual Reports and Accounts Burt et al.: Retail internalization and retail failure 201
(and its franchising) activity. Rees (1969) comments that even in the 1960s, this export business involved sending products to over 50 countries. The expatriate and military (NAAFI) markets were the focus of this business, but other countries were involved. This business grew substantially in volume over the 1970s, but was always subject to the vagaries of import bans and international Table 2 Marks and Spencer group locations (at 30 September 2001) Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer franchises Number of stores Number of outlets United Kingdom: 310 includes 8 outlet centres Bahrain 1 Bermuda 1 Belgium 4 Canary Islands (5) France 18 Gran Canaria 3 Luxembourg 1 Tenerife 2 Netherlands 2 Channel Islands (4) Portugal 2 Guernsey 1 Republic of Ireland 4 Jersey 3 Spain 9 Croatia 1 Hong Kong 10 Cyprus 8 TOTAL 353 Czech Republic 3 Finland 6 Gibraltar 1 Marks and Spencer Direct 1 Greece 28 Hungary 4 Indonesia 9 Israel 6 Kuwait 1 Malaysia 3 Malta 3 Philippines 9 Poland 1 UK Regional Stores Qatar 1 England 268 Romania 1 N. Ireland 7 Singapore 6 Scotland 22 South Korea 5 Wales 13 Thailand 10 Turkey 11 UAE 2 TOTAL 130 Brooks Brothers Brooks Brothers franchises Number of stores Number of stores Brooks Brothers USA: 155 US Airports: 4 incl. 79 retail stores, 75 outlets, 1 clearance Hong Kong 5 Brooks Brothers Japan 65 Taiwan 2 TOTAL 220 China 1 TOTAL 10 Kings Supermarkets Group Worldwide Locations Number of stores USA 27 TOTAL 750 Source : . shtml (d ownloaded 12th November 2001) 202 The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
trade ‘wars’. Export sales outside the group (Table 3) had reached £35 million by 1978, before trade embargoes, various wars e.g. Nigeria, the Iranian Revolu- tion, and exchange rate problems pegged back growth. Nonetheless, it would be wrong to characterize the pre-1970s M&S as a wholly UK business, as many previously have. Indeed, as Table 3 shows, this export business provided not only important sales opportunities but also valuable pointers towards areas of business opportunity. Some of the partners were transformed formally into franchisees as internationalization activity strengthened (see below). As Finlan (1992: 58) notes:

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