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US/Canada188123043895fN/a1421Rest of World223Franchises959Total57658409978613445h13794h16485StoresUK252251265292e283296Europe259112940US/Canada190227376g320328Hong Kong710FranchisesN/aN/aN/aN/a73115Total254d446d501d679d712779Notes(a) The data reported by the company changed often in the reporting period, andterminology is somewhat loose in their reports. It is best to treat the table as estimatesand tendencies therefore; (b) Estimated; (c) Initial years reect the export business, lateryears Hong Kong plus franchises; (d) Franchise store numbers excluded as unknown; (e)Includes Republic of Ireland stores and oorspace; (f) Includes stores in the Rest ofWorld; (g) Includes Hong Kong stores as well; and (h) Excludes franchise storeoorspace.Source: Constructed from company Annual Reports and AccountsBurt et al.: Retail internalization and retail failure201
(and its franchising) activity. Rees (1969) comments that even in the 1960s, thisexport business involved sending products to over 50 countries. The expatriateand military (NAAFI) markets were the focus of this business, but othercountries were involved. This business grew substantially in volume over the1970s, but was always subject to the vagaries of import bans and internationalTable 2Marks and Spencer group locations (at 30 September 2001)Marks and SpencerMarks and Spencer franchisesNumber of storesNumber of outletsUnited Kingdom:310 includes 8 outlet centresBahrain 1Bermuda 1Belgium 4Canary Islands (5)France 18Gran Canaria 3Luxembourg 1Tenerife 2Netherlands 2Channel Islands (4)Portugal 2Guernsey 1Republic of Ireland 4Jersey 3Spain 9Croatia 1Hong Kong 10Cyprus 8TOTAL 353Czech Republic 3Finland 6Gibraltar 1Marks and Spencer Direct 1Greece 28Hungary 4Indonesia 9Israel 6Kuwait 1Malaysia 3Malta 3Philippines 9Poland 1UK Regional StoresQatar 1England 268Romania 1N. Ireland 7Singapore 6Scotland 22South Korea 5Wales 13Thailand 10Turkey 11UAE 2TOTAL 130Brooks BrothersBrooks Brothers franchisesNumber of storesNumber of storesBrooks Brothers USA: 155US Airports: 4incl. 79 retail stores, 75 outlets, 1 clearanceHong Kong 5Brooks Brothers Japan 65Taiwan 2TOTAL 220China 1TOTAL 10Kings SupermarketsGroup Worldwide LocationsNumber of storesUSA 27TOTAL 750Source: .shtml (downloaded 12th November 2001)202The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research
trade ‘wars’. Export sales outside the group (Table 3) had reached £35 millionby 1978, before trade embargoes, various wars e.g. Nigeria, the Iranian Revolu-tion, and exchange rate problems pegged back growth. Nonetheless, it would bewrong to characterize the pre-1970s M&S as a wholly UK business, as manypreviously have. Indeed, as Table 3 shows, this export business provided not onlyimportant sales opportunities but also valuable pointers towards areas of businessopportunity. Some of the partners were transformed formally into franchisees asinternationalization activity strengthened (see below). As Finlan (1992: 58) notes: