Course Hero Logo

Through constructive conversations children can

Course Hero uses AI to attempt to automatically extract content from documents to surface to you and others so you can study better, e.g., in search results, to enrich docs, and more. This preview shows page 111 - 113 out of 126 pages.

§ through constructive conversations, children can expand eachother's ideas and enhance each other's cognitive skills andcreativity.oLeads to positive social outcomes§ Children who have good support and reciprocated friendships aremore likely to have social and emotional health-The possible costs of friendshipsoAggression and disruptiveness§ Correlational research shows children who have antisocial,delinquent and aggressive friends are more likely to showsimilar behaviours themselves§ Is it the case that children prone to negative behaviours findfriends similar to them, or is it the case that friends influenceeach other?·** Research supports both: for example, a longitudinalstudy found that friends affect one another's disruptiveand hostile behaviour. Children and youth who areengaged in negative antisocial behaviours model andreinforce antisocial behaviours by making thesebehaviours seem acceptable, a process known asdeviancy training.oAlcohol and substance abuse§ Youths who abuse alcohol or drugs are more likely to have friendswho also abuse drugs and alcohol.§ Research shows that friends also encourage and cause peers tostart using drugs and alcohol through peer pressure. Researchalso shows that youths' use of drugs and alcohol and theirpeer's alcohol and drug use reinforce each other and result inincreased use.§ Genetic makeup related to temperamental characteristics likerisk-taking behaviours is another factor that may influence theassociation between adolescents' abuse of drugs and alcoholand that of their friends.§ Parenting styles have also been shown to influence peerpressure regarding drug use: Adolescents who have uninvolvedor authoritarian parents are at higher risk for peer pressure touse drugs. Adolescents who have authoritative parents aremore likely to be protected against peer pressure to use drugs.
oBullying and victimization§ Unfortunately, bullying is a common experience. In 2014, 22% ofstudents aged 11 to 15 reported being bullied in the past twomonths. Girls have a higher risk of being bullied than boys.§ Bullies use aggression and intimidation to control other peers,making them feel powerless.Low self-esteem, social anxiety,age, sex and race are risk factors for bullying behaviours§ Factors such as home, school and neighbourhood also influencebullying behaviour. Research shows that bullies are more likelyto have antisocial tendencies, are susceptible to peer pressure,and have higher social status.·Their parents are more likely to be harsh and insensitive.§ Victims tend to be rejected by peers, feel depressed, and dopoorly in school·Hereditary factors related to the temperament of angercan predict peer victimization. Some children are bothperpetrators and victims·They have probably developed hostile attributional biasesafter being victimized by bullies, and so they tend tointerpret peoples' behaviours as hostile even when thebehaviour is not hostile. So they become bullies and actaggressively toward other people.

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 126 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Summer
Professor
BrianRabinowicz
Tags

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

Newly uploaded documents

Show More

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture