location for points outside of Somaliland and Puntland with a comparatively

Location for points outside of somaliland and

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location for points outside of Somaliland and Puntland, with a comparatively higher proportion of youth citing international migration plans. Bossasso is the point of departure for most of those wishing to go to Yemen and then onwards to other Gulf countries. The political situation in Yemen will naturally impact these trends and may: 1) deter youth from Bossasso to migrate on the short-term; 2) revise their plans and take alternative migration routes, on the longer- run.
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29 IOM Somalia - Research on Youth, Employment and Migration Educational differentiator – Youth at either end of the education curve are more likely to report migration intentions . Despite the frequency with which the phenomenon of brain drain was evoked, respondents with a bachelor’s degree were less likely to report the desire to migrate . However, students at the associate degree level and with no formal education at all did form the two groups most likely to report migration intentions, at 43% and 33%, respectively, of respondents with that education level. This gives support to the theory that those most likely to move have either a) no prospects due to lack of education and skills; or b) are not finding jobs at the level which they would like. This does not, however, mean that brain drain does not exist. As will be examined in the next section, there is a mismatch between skills learned at university and jobs available leading youth to wish to migrate. However, it does not make educated youth from Somaliland and Puntland more likely to wish to migrate. Figure 15 – Youth intention to migrate by educational status (Un-)Employment – The most significant differentiator observed between youth who wished to migrate and those who did not was self-identification as unemployed. While only 28% of youth overall reported migration intentions, 44% of those self-identifying as unemployed reported migration intentions. This supports that which came out from the qualitative research: the desire for (better) employment opportunities is the biggest driver of migration abroad, whether directly (to find a better job) or indirectly (to allow youth to, for example, pursue education leading to a better job), as will be examined in the next section and highlighted by this quote: “Our focus is mostly on south central – but you have generally the same problems in Somaliland and Puntland. In Somaliland, youth are leaving because of the lack of opportunities: not because of insecurity, but because of unemployment. In the special arrangement for Somaliland, it is very clear that they have their own priorities relevant to their context: programming needs to fall under this.” (UNDP, Somalia). Finally, unemployed youth are considerably more likely to plan on migrating than youth who have jobs.
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30 IOM Somalia - Research on Youth, Employment and Migration Figure 16 – Youth intention to migrate by employment status Box 0.1 – Two types of migration departures: hidden and open In Somaliland and Puntland, youth are reluctant to confess their migration intentions or plans due to fears that the government or their families may prevent them from leaving. In many cases, close
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  • Fall '17
  • IOM, Human migration, Somaliland

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