The second key development concerns a shift in the

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The second key development concerns a shift in the nature of competition. Here, blue ocean strategy by Chan and Mauborgne (2005) has had an impact. A blue ocean strategy envisions the competitive landscape to be a wide ecological environment where everyone can carve out a living based on unique adaptive, collaborative and
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inventive skills. This is a departure from the red ocean strategy, which represents an ocean where the survival mode is eat or be eaten . The chapters in Part III therefore focus on different aspects of the relationships between design and strategy. Fittingly, the opening chapter by Kyung-won Chung and Yu-Jin Kim concentrates on the Changes in the Role of Designers in Strategy. Chung and Kim offer a brief taxonomy of previous research on this topic. This research, they argue, points to two roles designers have in the development of product and service strategies: The first can be called interactional . The role of designers here is to initiate projects, generate participation and navigate matters of subordination. In the functional role, designers involvement in strategic matters is limited to that of form giver, solution provider, concept generator and service initiator. Case studies from the manufacturing and Internet service industries illustrate these two roles for designers within businesses and explores the implications of these two roles for in-house design. A different perspective is provided by Brigitte Borja de Mozota. In Design s Strategic Value Revisited: A Dynamic Theory for Design as Organizational Function , she traces the shifting foci in research on design and value in management. She argues that a first research loop centred on design as value. A second round of research looked into design value in the value chain. This, Mozota states, was followed by research into the design value chain in the value management. Today, she says, the focus is on design strategic value as core competency. This last shift, in her view, is significant because it lines up with resource-based theories and thereby values design thinking as a competitive advantage in strategy that adds unique value to an organization. 184 Design, Manag ement and the Organization The rise of branding has presented both problems and opportunities for design management. Lisbeth Svengren reminds us that the core ideas of brand management derive from legal and territorial concepts as much as those of ownership. Svengren sees a renewed opportunity for design management to come to the fore as an important area of research and practice. She illustrates her point by tracing key developments in strategic management and pointing out all the opportunities where design, particularly a design process, could and would have made contributions. In Design Management as Integrative Strategy , Svengren argues that the future role of design in strategic management is one of integrating functional, visual and conceptual strategies.
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