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As of 2020 over 600 msc clinical trials are underway

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As of 2020 over 600 MSC clinical trials are underway.These cells (a) replace missing cells, (b) act as a paracrine source torepair damaged cells and (c) can home directly to the site of injury.But estimates are that possibly only 1 to 5% of the transfused/injectedmesenchymal stem cells survive cellular cardiomyoplasty. This hascaused many groups to “prime” the cells prior to the transfusion processusing transient episodes oF hypoxia to see if they are better able tosurvive the inhospitable environment of the heart.Stem cells are critical to the renewal of many tissuesHuman skin — basal keratinocytes take 15-30 days to go from a stem cellto a complete dead cell consisting of cell membranes and keratinfilaments. Balance between apoptosis and regeneration from the basallayer has to be in perfect synchrony.Intestine— Single layer thick and consists of a crypt from which cellsmigrate upward over time. The migration can be tracked with a pulse-label of 3H- thymidine. While much is known about the renewal process,little is known about what happens to the cells once they reach the villus.Entire time of migration takes about 3 daysThis single layer of cells protects us from infection.Mesenchymal cells create the stem cell “niche” that directs celldifferentiation for the intestinal stem cells..Paneth cells located at the base secrete antimicrobial defenseproteins called defensins that form pores in bacteria (clever)Wnt signals promote stem cell fates whereas BMP promotesdifferentiation.Hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrowBlood stem cells are located in the bone marrow in adult animals. Bloodcells are derived from a single type of cell called the Pluripotenthematopoietic stem cell. These then give rise to the more restrictedmyeloid and lymphoid stem cells.The hematopoietic process is complicated and is influenced by a numberof growth factors such as cytokines and erythropoietin. The entire lineagein the ppt was worked out by injecting precursor cells into mouse whoseentire hematopoietic precursor cells were wiped out by radiation. Then,these cells were tracked. Fluorescent bar coding and Zebra fish ..see pptBone marrow cells and cord blood cells are now being activelyresearched as both blood replacements and a source of stem cells. Cordblood cells may have more future potential.Umbilical Cord BloodBlood ReplacementCord blood provides a source of cells that can be used toreconstitute the entire family of blood cells (Warwick and Armitage,2004). As such, it is regarded as a near equivalent to bone
marrow transplantation that was originally developed in the1970’s.The use of cord blood as a blood replacement is relatively recent,having its roots in 1989 when cord blood transplant betweensiblings resulted in a successful outcome. The first cord bloodbank was established in 1993. Since that time there have beenseveral thousand cord blood transplantations, primarily to children.

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Term
Fall
Professor
VANBUSKIRK
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