– Later works explore the dynamic potential of the pianoforte. – Haydn used a clavichord in his early years. • The piano sonatas follow the same line of development as the symphonies and string quartets.
HAYDN’S VOCAL MUSIC
Operas • Haydn held his vocal works in higher regard than his instrumental works, unlike the present-day reputation. • Haydn spent much of his time at Eszterháza composing and producing operas. • Armida (1784), a serious opera, is remarkable for its dramatic accompanied recitatives and grand arias. • Haydn’s operas are rarely performed today.
Masses • His last six masses are large-scale festive works set for four vocal soloists, chorus, and orchestra with trumpets and timpani. • Haydn retains traditional elements, such as fugal writing, and incorporates symphonic elements. • Some of the masses reflect the pervading warlike atmosphere. – Missa in tempore belli (Mass in Time of War, 1796) – Lord Nelson Mass (1798)
Oratorios • Haydn heard Handel’s oratorios in London and was deeply moved. • Inspired, he created two masterful oratorios. – The Creation (1798), based on Genesis and Milton’s Paradise Lost – The Seasons (1801) • Both works were published in English and German (adapted by Baron van Swieten).
Oratorios • Haydn’s Depiction of Chaos at the beginning of The Creation is remarkable for its harmonies and drama. • The Creation , recitative and chorus – Setting of the opening words of the Bible – Darkness: minor key, muted strings, and soft singing – “Let there be Light”: choral outburst with full orchestra on C-major chord
WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756–1791)
Family • Mozart was born in Salzburg, a city with a long musical history. • Mozart’s father, Leopold, was a performer and composer for the archbishop of Salzburg. • Leopold promoted the musical lives of young Mozart and his talented sister Nannerl (1751– 1829).
Travel • Mozart toured throughout Europe (1762–1773) and was exposed to international styles
Travel • In Paris, he became interested in the keyboard works of Johann Schobert. • In London, he met J. C. Bach, whose music had a lasting influence on him. • In Italy, he assimilated operatic traditions, was influenced by Sammartini, and studied counterpoint with Padre Martini. • In Vienna, he came into contact with Haydn’s music.
After touring, Mozart lived primarily in Salzburg (1773–1781) • He traveled with his mother to Munich, Augsburg, Mannheim, and Paris in 1777. – His hopes for a good position came to nothing. – His mother died in July 1778. • He received a commission from Munich to compose Idomeneo (1781), an opera seria that reflects the reformist trends of Gluck.
MOZART OF THE SALZBURG YEARS
Piano sonatas • Mozart composed thirteen of his piano sonatas and several sets of piano variations in Salzburg, including Ah, vous dirais-je maman, K. 265 (known as Twinkle, twinkle, little star ).
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