Read memorized versions of the story and see and

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“Read” memorized versions of the story and see and pizza “PIZZA” written on the box Do not yet understand the symbolic function of the elements of print Single letters are words Letters are like pictures (do not distinguish between drawing and writing Gradually preschoolers notice more features of written language and depict writing that varies in function, as in the “story” and “grocery list” Eventually children figure out that letters are parts of words and are linked to sounds in systematic ways (5-7 age) Soon, Phonological awareness the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language , as indicated by sensitivity to changes in sounds within words, to rhyming, and to incorrect pronunciation enables children to isolate speech segments and link them with their written symbols The more informal literacy experiences young children have, the better their language and emergent literacy development and their later reading skills Interactive reading, in which adults discuss storybook content with preschoolers, promotes many aspects of language and literacy development Preschoolers from low-SES families have fewer home and preschool language and literacy learning opportunities—a major reason that they are behind in emergent literacy skills and in reading achievement throughout the school years (ex: availability of age appropriate books) Figure 9.10 and p.344 for more on low SES Mathematical Reasoning Builds on informal knowledge toddlers display a beginning grasp of ordinality, or order relationships between quantities (2 is smaller than 3) Age 3, most can count rows of about five objects, although they do not yet know what the words mean Age 3 ½ to 4: mastered the meaning of numbers up to ten, count correctly, and grasp the vital principle of cardinality that the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in the set By age 4, children use counting to solve simple arithmetic problems After using min strategy: children realize that subtraction cancels out addition
Then comes estimation —the ability to generate approximate answers, which are useful for evaluating the accuracy of exact answers children can estimate only just beyond their calculation competence (10 than they can sum up to 20) When adults provide many occasions for counting, comparing quantities, and talking about number concepts, children acquire these understandings sooner Low SES have less math knowledge due to a gap due to differences in environmental supports Biology and Environment o “Mindblindness” and Autism Individual Differences in Mental Development o Psychologists and educators typically measure how well preschoolers are developing mentally by giving them intelligence tests (sample a wide range of mental abilities) o Early Childhood Intelligence Tests Verbal tests: showed a picture of a shovel “tell me what this is” -

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