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oDiffusion / perfusionSystemic circulationAnemia- decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit.When someone is bleeding internally or externally. The main 3 processes- ventilation, gas exchange, & perfusionVolumesoPFT- pulmonary function test- spirometry oTiter volume- total amount of volume with each inspiration and expiration. 500 mLoResidual Volume- the leftover volumeObstructive disorders- for ex- pneumonia. Their residual volume is high. Eupnea- normal breathing- rate- 12-20Respiratory problemsoSigns and symptomsDyspnea- Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing (your body is requiring more oxygen)Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspneaOrthopnea- lying down position is difficult to breathe Like people w pulmonary edema, Apnea- absent of breathingSneezing - allergies, sick, upper airway obstruction, influenzaCoughing- congestion, sick, Sputum- phlegm, you ask patient the amount, color, consistency, Thick consistency- maybe infection oIf it is green, tan – infection. So you send for a cultureoBlood- cancer, TB, inflammation, irritant. Hemoptysis – blood when coughing
Breathing patternoAnything besides eupnea is abnormal. oNormal breathing rate is 12-20. oTachypnea- fast breathing – anxious, inflammation, fever, oBradypnea- respiratory center depressed, slow breathing, oApnea- not breathingoKusshmal breathing- deep regular sighing, increased resp rateMetabolic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosisoCheyne stokes respirations- periodic breathing w periods of apnea, resp rate decreased. oStridor- high pitched grating sound when there is an airway obstruction.