- An estimated 40 to 200 cm (16 to 80 in), wide range of rise in sea level for the next century°- Increased in coastal erosion: Up to 260 ft on open beaches by stronger wave actions°- Landward shift of existing estuaries °- Disastrous impact on the existing developments along coastal zones °* 80% of our population lives within coastal areas *°°Biosphere and Global Warming:- Causing a number of changes in biosphere, both people and overall ecosystem °-Risk of extinction due to land use change and habitat shift * Species will go extinct and will not survive *°-Spread of infectious and other diseases due to migration of organisms°-Both land and oceanic components affected: from plants, to polar bears, to the bleaching of coral reef°
°Adaptation of Species to Global Warming:- During the past 25 years or so, plants and animals shifted their ranges by about 6 kilometers per decade toward the polar areas°-Spring arriving earlier, migrating birds arriving earlier, about 2.3 days per decade°-In Costa Rica, over 60 species of frogs may have gone extinct°-Assist migration of some species, unable to migratewith climate change, creating an invasive species, problematic°°Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Global Warming (1):°- Identify the historic changes that have occurred°- Predict the potential changes in the future: through modeling and simulation°- Reduce greenhouse gases°- Political commitment: Reconciling the conflicts between the environmental need for reduction of greenhouse gases and the economic demands for more fossil fuel°°Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Global Warming (2):°- The Kyoto protocol, the international agreement to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, signed by 166 nations and became a formal international treaty in February 2005°- Scientific evidence suggest that burning fossil fuels is contributing significantly to global warming
°- Even if carbon emissions were reduced to zero, warming will continue this century. There is 0.5 to 1.0 degrees C warming in the system°°Reducing the Impact of Global Warming (4):°- Reduce the emission of CO2Improved engineering technologies of the fuel-burning power plantsUse fossil fuels releasing less CO2Conservation of energyStore CO2in forests, soils and rocks, depleted oil and gas field, saltwater aquifers ( sequestration of CO2)Use alternative energy °°Paris Agreement-12/15:°- 195 countries adopted first universal, legally binding global climate deal°-Next Steps°- The agreement will be deposited at the UN in New York and opened for signature for one year April 22 2016°- The agreement will enter into force after 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification°°Coupling of Global Change Processes:°- The coupling of the greenhouse and ozone depletion problems from CFCs°- Burning of fossil fuels and acid rain problems°- Use of fossil fuels and volcanic eruption problems and atmospheric cooling
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