An estimated 40 to 200 cm 16 to 80 in wide range of rise in sea level for the

An estimated 40 to 200 cm 16 to 80 in wide range of

This preview shows page 93 - 96 out of 111 pages.

- An estimated 40 to 200 cm (16 to 80 in), wide range of rise in sea level for the next century°- Increased in coastal erosion: Up to 260 ft on open beaches by stronger wave actions°- Landward shift of existing estuaries °- Disastrous impact on the existing developments along coastal zones °* 80% of our population lives within coastal areas *°°Biosphere and Global Warming:- Causing a number of changes in biosphere, both people and overall ecosystem °-Risk of extinction due to land use change and habitat shift * Species will go extinct and will not survive *°-Spread of infectious and other diseases due to migration of organisms°-Both land and oceanic components affected: from plants, to polar bears, to the bleaching of coral reef°
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°Adaptation of Species to Global Warming:- During the past 25 years or so, plants and animals shifted their ranges by about 6 kilometers per decade toward the polar areas°-Spring arriving earlier, migrating birds arriving earlier, about 2.3 days per decade°-In Costa Rica, over 60 species of frogs may have gone extinct°-Assist migration of some species, unable to migratewith climate change, creating an invasive species, problematic°°Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Global Warming (1):°- Identify the historic changes that have occurred°- Predict the potential changes in the future: through modeling and simulation°- Reduce greenhouse gases°- Political commitment: Reconciling the conflicts between the environmental need for reduction of greenhouse gases and the economic demands for more fossil fuel°°Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Global Warming (2):°- The Kyoto protocol, the international agreement to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, signed by 166 nations and became a formal international treaty in February 2005°- Scientific evidence suggest that burning fossil fuels is contributing significantly to global warming
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°- Even if carbon emissions were reduced to zero, warming will continue this century. There is 0.5 to 1.0 degrees C warming in the system°°Reducing the Impact of Global Warming (4):°- Reduce the emission of CO2Improved engineering technologies of the fuel-burning power plantsUse fossil fuels releasing less CO2Conservation of energyStore CO2in forests, soils and rocks, depleted oil and gas field, saltwater aquifers ( sequestration of CO2)Use alternative energy °°Paris Agreement-12/15:°- 195 countries adopted first universal, legally binding global climate deal°-Next Steps°- The agreement will be deposited at the UN in New York and opened for signature for one year April 22 2016°- The agreement will enter into force after 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification°°Coupling of Global Change Processes:°- The coupling of the greenhouse and ozone depletion problems from CFCs°- Burning of fossil fuels and acid rain problems°- Use of fossil fuels and volcanic eruption problems and atmospheric cooling
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