opposing this tradition from Greece to Heidegger including the Hegelian

Opposing this tradition from greece to heidegger

This preview shows page 21 - 23 out of 142 pages.

opposing this tradition from Greece to Heidegger, including the Hegelian attitude to the other, by placing not ontology but ethics as first philosophy. From this point of view, he also opposes the structure of modern society by claiming that society should be based on the ethical and not the political. If politics is the basis of the whole society, Lévinas's question in the preface to Totality and Infinity, "whether we are not duped by morality" would be crucial . Because war , which is behind modern politics , suspends the strength of morality, Hobbes held that morality could be a cheat. For political reasons, the sovereign could even burn all the books of geometry, which Hobbes regards as the sole gift from God.2 Because this is precisely what Lévinas cannot accept, he must seek another foundation for society in order to limit the logic of politics and violence within politics. Lévinas wants to establish a prepolitical ethics, which can overturn the logic of war underlying the political. Lévinas thinks that modern political theory is based on individualism and calculation, by which modern society is built up. If so, there is no chance to avoid violence and war. From the viewpoint of Hobbes, there are only two kinds of peace: Cold peace, in which people are scared of each other and keep a terrible balance, and the peace of sovereignty, in which there is one sovereignty with the rest of the population as subjects. We can imagine that the background of this theory of peace is war. From Hobbes to utilitarianism, the inner logic of calculation is same. By this calculation, peace is temporary, utilitarian, and only the interval between wars. Regarding the question of whether the basis of society is political or ethical, Lévinas's answer is clear: It is definitely ethical. When Lévinas tries to resolve the tension between the political and the ethical, he does not rest on the political, like modern philosophers. He seeks to justify a prepolitical ethical life- world to serve as the foundation of the political. This is what Lévinas has done in Totality and Infinity. He appeals to other resource of thought in the world, such as Jewish tradition, although he does not refer to it directly. He considers that the only real peace is a kind of messianic peace: Morality will oppose politics in history and will have gone beyond the functions of prudence or the canons of the beautiful to proclaim itself unconditional and universal when the eschatology of messianic peace will have come to superpose itself upon the ontology of war. Apocalyptic rhetoric should be abandoned as a political strategy – it incorrectly levels questions of probability and actual magnitude of events Gross new media strategist & Gilles domestic abuse advocate 2012 Matthew Barrett & Mel The Atlantic 4/23
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- taking-political-action/255758/ In answering these questions, it becomes clear that much of what the media portrays as apocalyptic is not. The apocalyptic scenarios involving global disaster
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