Physics 6th Edition Solutions Serway Chapter 15 Solutions

# 4 electrons are more mobile than protons and are more

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4. Electrons are more mobile than protons and are more easily freed from atoms than are protons. 6. No. Object A might have a charge opposite in sign to that of B , but it also might be neutral. In this latter case, object B causes object A to be polarized, pulling charge of one sign to the near face of A and pushing an equal amount of charge of the opposite sign to the far face. Then the force of attraction exerted by B on the induced charge on the near side of A is slightly larger than the force of repulsion exerted by B on the induced charge on the far side of A . Therefore, the net force on A is toward B . 8. If the test charge was large, its presence would tend to move the charges creating the field you are investigating and, thus, alter the field you wish to investigate. 10. She is not shocked. She becomes part of the dome of the Van de Graaff, and charges flow onto her body. They do not jump to her body via a spark, however, so she is not shocked. 12. An electric field once established by a positive or negative charge extends in all directions from the charge. Thus, it can exist in empty space if that is what surrounds the charge. 14. No. Life would be no different if electrons were positively charged and protons were negatively charged. Opposite charges would still attract, and like charges would still repel. The designation of charges as positive and negative is merely a definition. 16. The antenna is similar to a lightning rod and can induce a bolt to strike it. A wire from the antenna to the ground provides a pathway for the charges to move away from the house in case a lightning strike does occur. 18. (a) If the charge is tripled, the flux through the surface is also tripled, because the net flux is proportional to the charge inside the surface. (b) The flux remains constant when the volume changes because the surface surrounds the same amount of charge, regardless of its volume. (c) The flux does not change when the shape of the closed surface changes. (d) The flux through the closed surface remains unchanged as the charge inside the surface is moved to another location inside that surface. (e) The flux is zero because the charge inside the surface is zero. All of these conclusions are arrived at through an understanding of Gauss’s law. 20. (a) Q (b) + Q (c) 0 (d) 0 (e) + Q (See the discussion of Faraday’s ice-pail experiment in the textbook.)

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4 CHAPTER 15 22. The magnitude of the electric force on the electron of charge e due to a uniform electric field G is . Thus, the force is constant. Compare this to the force on a projectile of mass m moving in the gravitational field of the Earth. The magnitude of the gravitational force is mg . In both cases, the particle is subject to a constant force in the vertical direction and has an initial velocity in the horizontal direction. Thus, the path will be the same in each case—the electron will move as a projectile with an acceleration in the vertical direction and constant velocity in the horizontal direction. Once the electron leaves the region between the plates, the electric field disappears, and the electron continues moving in a straight line according to Newton’s first law.

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