researcher can obtain at any time survey completion statistics, descriptive statistics or graphically display data Survey Research Advantages (relative to qual methods) • Ease : Questionnaires are relatively easy to administer. • Reliability : Using fixed- response (multiple-choice) questions reduces variability in the results that may be caused by differences in interviewers and enhances reliability of the responses. • Simplicity : It also simplifies coding, analysis, and interpretation of data. Disadvantages (relative to qual methods) • Respondents may be unable or unwilling to provide the desired information. • Structured data collection involving a questionnaire with fixed-response choices may result in loss of validity for certain types of data, such as beliefs and feelings. • Properly wording questions is not easy. 50 Observation Research 51
Lecture 4 18 Observational Methods • Rationale : Respondents may not give “truthful” answers, useful supplements to other techniques • Common examples : supermarket scanner data, people meter, clickstream data, surveillance • Tools : Electronic devices, other “high tech” information collectors, product in use, silicon chips in-store, personal people meters, eye-trackers 52 Example – Spooky Mannequins Spy on Shoppers 53 Eye-Tracking 54
Lecture 4 19 Example – measuring people’s attention on advertising material • Most marketing stimuli aim at capturing visual attention: attention is a crucial, yet scarce resource. • The issue is: – Do our visual marketing stimuli capture and retain attention sufficiently? 55 56 • Pros – Measure actual behavior rather than intended or preferred behavior – There is no reporting bias – Certain types of data can be collected only by observation – Sometimes observational methods may be cheaper and faster than survey methods Observations: Pros and Cons (relative to survey research) 57 • Cons – Selective perception (bias in the researcher's perception) can bias the data – In some cases, the use of observational methods may be unethical – Often time-consuming and expensive, and it is difficult to observe certain forms of behavior
Lecture 4 20 Recap • Qualitative research – Focus groups – Depth interviews – Projective techniques • Descriptive research – Survey research – Observation methods • For week 4 tutorial – Review Lecture 4 notes and suggested readings – Submit Mini-task 2 before tutorial starts 58 Key Concepts • Qualitative research • Indirect approach • Projective techniques • Association techniques • Construction techniques • Survey method • Observation method
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