Bitumen contain enough bitumen to produce 17 trillion

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sands = 10-12% bitumen Contain enough bitumen to produce 1.7 trillion barrels of synthetic oil but number of recoverable barrels using today’s technology estimated at 174 billion
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Strip mining bitumen Deposits must be within 100m of surface = approx. 7% of total reserves Mix sand with hot water --> skim off molten tar Two tonnes sand --> 1 barrel oil Each barrel produced consumes: 2-5 barrels fresh water 25 cubic ft. natural gas (to heat water) Tar Sands
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Tar sands equipment for the strip mining of near-surface bitumen deposits Tar Sands
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In situ ” Bitumen Recovery For deposits > 100m deep = 93% of recoverable oil Injector well injects steam Producer well pumps molten tar to surface Recovers 60-80% of tar in the deposit Requires 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas (mostly used in making steam) to produce one barrel of oil! Tar Sands
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Bitumen refining/processing plant where bitumen is broken down to make  gasoline and other petroleum components  Bitumen molecule must be broken ( cracked ) into fragments to  produce  synthetic oil 1. Hydrogen atoms added to C skeleton using a platinum catalyst  and natural gas as a hydrogen donor (= hydrocracking) 2. High temperature, pressure treatment removes N, S atoms  (= hydrotreating ) Energy-intensive; another source of CO 2  emissions Tar Sands
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Tar Sands 2009: natural gas consumption of tar sands = 0.75 billion cubic feet per day Enough to heat 4 million homes CO 2 production = 55 million tonnes/yr; more than all cars in Canada 1.5 million barrels of bitumen produced / day Current gov’t & industry plan: increase bitumen production to 3.4 million barrels / day by 2020 Emissions will increase to 127-140 million tonnes Equivalent to the entire country of Belgium (pop’n 10 million)
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Proposed new oil pipelines Two have federal and industry approval Will allow increased rate of oil production & export (with increased CO 2 emissions)
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Paris climate agreement Dec 2015 195 1 countries Goal: reduce emissions enough to limit the increase in global average temperature to 2°C above pre-industrial levels Enough to avoid “dangerous” climate change (disputed) Consistent with moderate emissions (Sangamon-like) scenario To succeed: must reduce global emissions by 5-6% every year, starting this year 80% of known fossil fuel reserves must stay in the ground Canada’s target: keep warming below 1.5°C No plan yet as to how to achieve
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Is 2°C really “safe”? Last interglacial (Sangamon) was 2°C warmer than today; sea level was 5-9 m higher would be disastrous for many countries study of fossil corals in Bahamas (Blanchon et al. 2009) suggests 2-3m of rise occurred over < 100 yrs large boulders deposited by waves = evidence of violent hurricanes
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The effects of global climate change have been most pronounced at the poles (+2 to +4°C).
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