2. A windward coast is likely to experience only modest varia- tions in the daily temperature cycle. During a typical 24-hour period, the ocean warms less than 1°C. As a result, the air eye ONTHE atmosphere 3.3 For more than a decade, scientists have used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, for short) aboard NASA’s Aqua and Terra satellites to gather surface temperature data from around the globe. This image shows average land-surface temperatures for the month of February over a 10-year span (2001–2010). Questions 1. What are the approximate temperatures for southern Great Britain and northern Newfoundland (white arrows)? 2. Both are coastal areas at the same latitude, yet average February temperatures are quite different. Suggest a reason for this disparity. –25 10 45°C Video Heavy Convection Over Florida
76 The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology imbalance between incoming and outgoing radiation, any loca- tion in the southern United States, for example, should con- tinue to get warmer late into autumn. But this does not occur because more poleward locations begin experiencing a negative radiation balance shortly after the summer solstice. As the temperature contrasts become greater, the atmosphere and ocean currents “work harder” to transport heat from lower latitudes poleward. ✔ Concept Checks 3.4 Although the intensity of incoming solar radiation is greatest at local noon, the warmest part of the day is most often midafternoon. Why? Use Figure 3.22 to explain. List at least three factors that might cause the daily temperature range to vary significantly from place to place and from time to time. 3.5 Temperature Measurement Explain how different types of thermometers work and why the placement of thermometers is an important factor in obtaining accurate readings. Distinguish among Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin temperature scales. GEODe ▶ Temperature Data and the Controls of Temperature ▶ Basic Temperature Data During a typical day, many of us routinely check or encoun- ter the current air temperature several times. Radio stations frequently quote the current temperature, and we may see a digital display of time and temperature outside a bank or an- other business. Many cars show the air temperature as part of the dashboard display. Are all these sources accurate? Thermometers Thermometers are “meters of therms”: They measure tem- perature ( Fig. 3.23 ). Thermometers measure temperature either mechanically or electrically. One of the most apparent human impacts on climate is the modification of the at- mospheric environment by the building of cities. The construction of every factory, road, office building, and house destroys microclimates and creates new ones of great complexity. The most studied and well- documented urban climatic effect is the urban heat island . The term refers to the fact that temperatures within cities are generally higher than in rural areas.
- Winter '17