7 rights to a trial in a civil case involving at

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7. Rights to a trial in a civil case involving at least $20. 8. Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment, and excessive bail and fines. 9. That the people have the rights to what is and is not in the constitution. 10. That the powers are allowed reserved to the states and the people no matter what. 11. Commerce Clause: U.S right to regulate state and local affairs. 12. Dormant Commerce Clause: States do not have the authority to interstate commerce. 13. Supremacy Clause: Supreme law of the land. 14. Preemption: where congress acts in an area where federal and states have concurrent powers. The Bill of rights was applied as a protection against State’s action to protect persons from the “deprivation of life, liberty, and property without due process of law. Due process ¨Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments provide “no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law.” Procedural Due Process-Procedures depriving an individual of her rights must be fair and equitable. Constitution requires adequate notice and a fair and impartial hearing before a disinterested magistrate. Have to do with equity. Substantive Due Process-Focuses on the content or substance of legislation. Laws limiting fundamental rights (speech, privacy, religion) must have a “compelling state interest.”¨Laws limiting non-fundamental rights require only a “rational basis.” Equal Protection Clause- Strict Scrutiny Test .-Laws that affect fundamental rights of similarly situated individuals differently are subject to the “strict scrutiny” test. Any “suspect class” (race, national origin) must serve a “compelling state interest” which includes remedying past discrimination. Intermediate Scrutiny.-Applied to laws involving gender or legitimacy.To be constitutional laws must be substantially related to important government objectives.(EXAMPLE: Illegitimate teenage pregnancy). Everyone is entitled to laws. Rational Basis Test.-Applied to matters of economic or social welfare. Laws will be constitutional if there is a rational basis relating to legitimate government interest. Chapter 5: Section 1 Ethics is the study of right and wrong behavior; whether an action is fair, right or just. In business, ethical decisions are the application of moral and ethical principles to the marketplace and workplace. The ‘Moral Minimum.” Normally considered as mere compliance with the law . “Gray Areas” in the Law-Make it difficult for companies to navigate and forecast. Short-Run Profit Maximization- Some argue a businesses only goal should be to maximize profit. But executives need to distinguish between short-term and long-term maximization. Importance of Ethical Leadership-¨Attitude of Top Management. Behavior of Owners and Managers. Section 3- ¨Duty Based Ethics - derived from religious and philosophical principles.
Religious Ethical Standards- The rightness or wrongness of an action is usually judged according to its conformity to an absolute rule that commands a particular form of behavior.

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