Collective Efficacy Sampson Raudenbush and Earls 1993 They argue that

Collective efficacy sampson raudenbush and earls 1993

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Collective Efficacy (Sampson, Raudenbush and Earls, 1993) •They argue that delinquency/crime occurs in neighborhoods that are unable to recognize their common values and maintain effective informal social control •Collective efficacy involves the willingness of individuals in a neighborhood to work together toward a common goal, such as crime control and mutual trust. •For example, willingness to interfere if neighborhood children are loitering, smoking and drinking –Call parents, call school or personally interfere •In this way their theory is not so different from social disorganization theories. RESULTS SLIDES
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Conclusion Routine activities theory Support for age, marital status, urban residence, employment status, total evenings out, previous victimization and monthly alcohol and drug use. •Social disorganization –The social disorder index was positively associated with the likelihood of both personal and property victimization. –The discrimination index also increased ones likelihood of personal and property victimization. –Residential instability measures, such as home ownership and duration in residence, had no effect on the likelihood of victimization. •Collective efficacy –Trust and helpfulness of neighbors, produced significant results for some forms of victimization. Police Reported Hate Crimes in Canada, 2016 •What is a hate crime? •Hate crime increasing since 2013 –5% increase in hate crimes between 2014 and 2015. –3% increase in hate crimes between 2015 and 2016 •43% of hate crimes were violent offences. •Hate crimes targeting sexual orientation had the highest % of violent crimes (71%).
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Self-reported sexual assault in Canada, 2014 •Who was at greater risk of sexual assault in Canada? •Who were the perpetrators? •1 in 20 assaults are reported to the police (compared to 1 in 3 for other types of crime). •Other interesting findings?
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