Use Model 1 to show which atoms are present in each type of molecule by listing the symbol for each atom included. Carbohydrate has been done for you. a. Carbohydrate— C, H, O c. Amino acid— b. Lipid— d. Nucleic acid— 2. Which type of molecule includes an example with a long-chain carbon backbone? 3. In the molecule referred to in the previous question, what is the dominant element attached to the carbon backbone? 4. The fatty acid chain of the lipids is often referred to as a hydrocarbon chain. Discuss with your group why the chain is given this name and write a one-sentence definition for a hydrocarbon. 5. Which molecule has a central carbon atom with four different components around it? 6. Which molecule has a sugar, nitrogenous base, and phosphate group? 7. Discuss with your group members some similarities among all four types of molecules. List as many as you can. 8. What is the chemical formula of the first carbohydrate molecule shown? 9. What three structural groups shown do all amino acids have in common? 10. There are 20 naturally-occurring amino acids, and each one only varies in the structure of the R side chain. Two amino acids are shown in Model 1. What are the R side chains in each? Read This! During chemical reactions, the bonds in molecules are continually broken and reformed. To break a bond, energy must be absorbed. When bonds are formed, energy is released. If more energy is released than absorbed during a chemical change, the process can be used as a source of energy. A general rule for processes such as respiration is the more carbon atoms there are in a molecule, the more energy that molecule can provide to the organism when it is used as food.
Biological Molecules 3
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