An improvement in performance over successive

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An improvement in performance over successive baseline or probe testing or observation sessions is considered a facilitative effect A deterioration in performance over successive baseline or probe testing or observation session is considered a inhibitive effect Threats that refer to the concerns of the measurement system are instrumentation threats Procedural Infidelity refers to the lack of adherence to condition protocols by study implementers Selection bias involves choosing participants in a way that differentially impacts the inclusion or retention of participants in a study, when compared to the “population” of interest Attrition refers to the loss of participants during the course of a study Attrition bias refers to the likelihood that participant loss impacts the outcome of the study When attrition occurs you should always A) explicitly report it, along with relevant information about why it occurred, and B) include any data collected for that participant in your research report Sampling bias occurs in SCD studies when researchers use additional non-explicated, reasons for including or excluding potential participants Multiple-treatment interference can occur when a study participant’s behavior is influenced by more than one planned “treatments” or interventions during the course of the study When the order in which experimental conditions are introduced to participants influences their behavior is sequential confounding Carryover effect is the effect when a procedure used in one experimental condition influences behavior in an adjacent condition The amount of variability in the data over time is instability A specific type of data instability that refers to a repeated and predictable pattern in the data series over time is cyclical variability Data instability is also referred to as variability Regression to the mean refers to the likelihood that following an outlying data point, data are likely to revert back to levels closer to the average value
Adaptation a period of time at the start of an investigation in which participants’ recorded behavior may differ from their natural behavior due to the novel conditions under which data are collected The Hawthorne Effect refers to participants’ observed behavior not being representative of their natural behavior as a result of their knowledge that they are participants in an experiment Ch. 2 Ethical Principles and Practices in Research History of Ethics in Applied Research Under present federal regulations The Public Health Service Act as amended by the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act of 1993), sponsoring institutions must ensure the rights of research participants are protected Well designed applied research studies allow for; A) The systematic study of behaviors in typical environments (baseline measures) B) evaluation of a new intervention or innovation C) replications of findings from other studies under similar and novel conditions Committees responsible for reviewing proposed research studies are known as

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