Ential this procedure was developed by osgood et al

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ential. This procedure was developed by Osgood et al. (1957), and has established validity and reliability. Studies have shown its applicability to all age groups and in differing cultures and languages. The semantic differential has a strong factorial structure and constancy, and can be analyzed using sophisticated statistical tech- niques, such as multiple regression analyses and factor analysis. This procedure uses paired bipolar adjectives placed on a continuum. Respond- ents check the number or space that corresponds to their perception, attitude, or feeling about the concept that is being assessed. For example, if the concept is exercises, then respondents would select one number for each of the following pairs of adjectives: warm 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 cold boring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 interesting There are three dimensions that can be assessed: evaluation, potency, and activ- ity. The evaluation dimension assesses adjective contrasts, such as good and bad.
Group Evaluation, Activity Guidelines 53 The potency dimension assesses the efficacy or strength, such as brave or cowardly. The activity dimension assesses movement or passivity, such as nap or play. Heise (1970) recommends four sets of bipolar adjectives for each dimen- sion for every concept assessed. The same adjectives do not have to be used for each concept. Osgood and others (1957) provide 76 pairs of adjectives, but many people use the dictionary and thesaurus to develop their adjective pairs. Following is an example of a semantic differential for the group compo- nent “lectures.” You can assess each component separately: exercises, lectures, media, discussions, and so on. Following is a sample semantic differential form. Example Semantic Differential for Lectures Directions : The purpose of this form is to determine how you feel about the group lectures. Each component is presented and followed by a set of bipolar adjectives. Check the number between each set of adjectives that best reflects or is closest to the adjective that describes how you feel about the lectures. For example, if the concept was book, and the set of adjective were as follows, you could check the underlined number: BOOK like 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 dislike down 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 up Work as quickly as possible, and choose a number for each set of adjectives. Lectures (E) good* 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 bad (A) slow 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 fast (E) unhelpful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 helpful (A) active 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 passive (P) powerful 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 weak (E) boring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 dull (E) important 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 unimportant (P) hard 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 easy (P) shallow 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 deep (A) calm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 exciting (P) sensitive 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 rough (A) involved 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 uninvolved *(dimension)
54 Structuring Scoring Following are two methods for scoring. Select one method to implement.

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