Ask your informants to place a stone above or below the “average” line to indicate how much better or worse. Discuss briefly what factors contributed to the year being either good or bad. Then, go back through each of the previous ten years showing whether it was above or below average and discussing why. The result will be a time trend line as displayed in the example below. Example of a Food Security Time line 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Bad Rains, Locusts Good Rains Too Much Rain Flooding, Animals Die Good Rains Gold Mine Increases Demand For Labor Rain Badly Spaced Little Millet Harvested Poor Rains Govt. Hires People to Repair Road Fertilizer and Medicine Prices Increase Bad Rains Good Rains Remittances Poor Rains Good Market Opens, Year Round Grain Sales Good Rains Insect Damage 99
Tools Specifically Useful in Planning All of the tools outlined above gather information that will feed into the planning process of a community that wishes to use the PRA for planning purposes. Good planning requires good information and the more a community can understand about the problems it wishes to address, the more likely that its solutions will be appropriate and feasible. There are several tools that can help the community to prioritize its problems and then analyze the potential solutions in order to find those that make the best sense. A common problem with community planning exercises has been that villages tend to model their desires on what looks good in another community where a development project has intervened. If an agency has put millet grinding machines into a number of villages in the area, many other villages may well consider that their priority, regardless of whether it meets a priority need or is a feasible solution in their community. The goal of a serious community planning process is to move beyond what is commonly referred to in America (where this phenomenon is also a problem!) as “keeping up with the Joneses [neighbors]” and instead to ensure that planning is based on a thorough and reflective analysis of the problems. The two matrices proposed below (or adaptations of these tools based on the situation at hand) are useful in facilitating the community’s analysis and ensuring that the full range of relevant issues are 100 Example of a Problem Ranking Matrix Number of People Affected Men Women Children Gravity of Impact on Affected Population Causes Other Problems in Village Solution Depends on Solving Other Problems First Likelihood We Can Solve the Problem Ourselves Chance We Can Find Outside Help With the Problem Problem #1 Problem #2 Problem #3
considered in the planning process. The first matrix helps the community to prioritize the problems that have been identified while the second serves to think through issues in order to come up with the best solution(s) for addressing the problem. In each case, the criteria used to evaluate either the problem or the solution are indicative. Each community, with the PRA facilitator, will have to come up with the criteria that they feel are the most relevant to their situation.
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- Summer '13
- Qualitative Research, PRA, rra, RRAs