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Many southern republican voters denied suffrage ii

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-- Many southern Republican voters denied suffrage.ii. Full suffrage for blacks not realized until 1965.6.Civil Rights Act of 1875a. Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of publicconveyances and public places e.g. hotels, trains, railroads,theaters, and restaurants.b. Prohibited discrimination in jury selectionc. Shortcoming: Lacked a strong enforcement mechanismd. Dismayed northerners didn’t attempt another civil rights act for90 years!
7. The end of reconstructiona. By 1870, all former Confederate states had reorganized theirstate govt’s and reintegrated into the Union, having adopted the14th and 15th Amendments.i. Once state govt’s ("radical regimes") seemed on solidfooting in the South, Union forces were removed.ii. By 1876, whites again dominated southern politicsb. Northerners now concerned with other issues rather thanhelping freedmen.c. Panic of 1873-1879 focused politics on economic issuesd.Compromise of 1877i.Election between RepublicanRutherford B. HayesandDemocratSam Tildeninconclusive.-- Tilden led popular vote and 184-165 in electoral college;187 votes needed to win.-- 20 electoral votes in question due to fraud & violence inSC, FL, & LAplus questions of voter eligibility inOregon.-- 15 member commission eventually gave Hayes all 20votes but Democrats filibustered.ii. Compromise: North was allowed to have Hayes as presidentwhile last remaining federal troops to be removed from SCFL & LA8. Military Reconstruction resulted in a significant decline inpresidential power.a. Supreme Court had ruled inEx parte Milligan(1866)thatmilitarytribunals (executive branch) could not try civilians ifcivil courts nearby.b. Since desperate times call for desperate measures, the SupremeCourt avoided confronting Congress about its imposition ofmartial law.c. During subsequent Gilded Age presidents would be weak andfaceless while Congress would dominate.VIII. Radical Reconstruction in the SouthA. Suffrage policy somewhat hypocritical on the part of the North.-- Most northern states denied suffrage to blacks until 15thAmendmentB. African American suffrage saw temporary gains in the South1. Blacks made up the majority of voters in AL, FL, LA, MI, andSouth Carolina but only in S.C. did they make up majority in thelower house.2. No senate had a black majority nor were there any black
governors during the period coined by white southerners as "blackreconstruction."3. Yet, many black representatives served with distinction; somewell-educated.-- Two black senators from MI:Hiram R. RevelsandBlancheK. Bruce.C. Corruption in state legislatures1."Scalawags"(term coined by white Southern Democrats)a. Southern men, formerly Unionists and Whigs, who supportedReconstruction.b. Hated by former Confederates who exaggerated theircorruption and plundering of Southern treasuries through theirpolitical influence.2."Carpetbaggers"a. Mainly Northern Republicans who allegedly packed all theirpossessions into a single carpet-bag suitcase and came to theSouth to seek their fortune.

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Term
Winter
Professor
N/A
Tags
History, 13th Amendment, 14th Amendment, Reconstruction, Southern United States, Reconstruction era of the United States, B President Johnson

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